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Modern FPGA architectures from Altera and Xilinx have shifted away from allowing multiple drivers to connect to each interconnect wire. This paper advocates the need for this shift to single-driver wiring by investigating the necessary architectural and circuit design changes. When single-driver wiring is used, area improves by 25%, delay improves by 9%,(More)
Psoriasis is a type I-deviated disease characterized by the presence of interferon (IFN)-gamma and multiple IFN-related inflammatory genes in lesions. Because interleukin (IL)-23 is now recognized to play a role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells in a T helper cell (Th)1-mediated disease, we examined psoriasis skin lesions for production of this newly(More)
AIMS To investigate the frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism C3435T in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene in Asians and to determine the functional significance of this SNP with the clinical pharmacokinetics of oral cyclosporin (Neoral) in 10 stable heart transplant patients. METHODS The MDR1 C3435T polymorphism was investigated in 290 healthy Asian(More)
Efalizumab (anti-CD11a) interferes with LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding and inhibits several key steps in psoriasis pathogenesis. This study characterizes the effects of efalizumab on T-cell activation responses and expression of surface markers on human circulating psoriatic T cells during a therapeutic trial. Our data suggest that efalizumab may induce a unique type(More)
In medical research, it is rare that a single variable is sufficient to represent all relevant aspects of epidemiological risk, genomic activity, adverse events, or clinical response. Since biological systems tend to be neither linear, nor hierarchical in nature, the assumptions of traditional multivariate statistical methods based on the linear model can(More)
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT OATP1B1 is important for hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin and BCRP is important for rosuvastatin absorption and elimination. Eltrombopag inhibits OATP1B1 and BCRP in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations. Inhibition of these transporters could change cholesterol-lowering efficacy and increase the risk of(More)
Each new semiconductor technology node brings smaller, faster transistors and smaller, slower wires. In particular, long interconnect wires in modern FPGAs now require rebuffering at interior points in the wire. This paper presents a framework for designing and evaluating long, buffered interconnect wires in FPGAs with near-optimal delay performance using(More)
Psoriasis vulgaris, a skin disease that is considered to be the result of a type 1 autoimmune response, provides an opportunity for studying the changes that occur in a target-diseased tissue during innovative immunotherapies. To gain a more comprehensive picture of the response to an approved biological therapy, we studied alfacept, which is a CD2 binding(More)
Acid-related disorders are common management problems in clinical practice. The key to effective management is successful suppression of gastric acid production. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most potent acid suppressants available and are significantly more effective than histamine H(2) receptor antagonists. Although PPIs are highly effective as a(More)