Edmund J Miller

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Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms can potentially be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here we report that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inhibits HMGB1 release from human macrophages by signaling through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, is more efficient than acetylcholine and(More)
The strength, resorption rate, and biocompatibility of collagenous biomaterials are profoundly influenced by the method and extent of crosslinking. We compared the effects of two physical crosslinking methods, ultraviolet irradiation (UV) (254 nm) and dehydrothermal (DHT) treatment, on the mechanical properties and molecular integrity of collagen fibers(More)
The alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the(More)
MIF is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Antibodies against MIF are effective in experimental models of inflammation, and there is interest in strategies to inhibit its deleterious cytokine activities. Here we identify a mechanism of inhibiting MIF pro-inflammatory(More)
Eleven subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases diagnosed in the UK between 1965 and 2000 were investigated. The entire or partial matrix (M), hemagglutinin (H), and nucleoprotein (N) genes of measles virus (MV) were sequence d following direct RT-PCR amplification from brain tissues. All the M genes showed the characteristic biased hypermutations(More)
OBJECTIVE Tumor necrosis factor and high mobility group box 1 are critical cytokine mediators of inflammation. The efferent vagus nerve inhibits cytokine release through alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated cholinergic signaling. Here we studied whether GTS-21, a selective alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, inhibits proinflammatory(More)
Abnormally low plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones during sepsis often occur in the absence of thyroidal illness; however, the mechanisms involved in the "euthyroid sick syndrome" remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized interaction between the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T(4)) and the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage(More)
Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is necessary to treat critically ill patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause acute inflammatory lung injury. One of the major effects of hyperoxia is the injury and death of pulmonary epithelium, which is accompanied by(More)
Cell injury and cell death of pulmonary epithelium plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in animals exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. The aim of this study was to decipher the molecular mechanisms modulating cell death induced by hyperoxia in lung epithelium. Cell death is thought to be either apoptotic, with shrinking phenotypes(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, and plaque instability, and is a known cardiac depressant. This post-hoc, cross-sectional study examined whether MIF(More)