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Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune-brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region-specific(More)
The alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the(More)
Pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa and neutrophilic lung inflammation significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). HMGB1, a ubiquitous DNA binding protein that promotes inflammatory tissue injury, is significantly elevated in CF sputum. However, its mechanistic and potential therapeutic implications in CF(More)
The aging lung is increasingly susceptible to infectious disease. Changes in pulmonary physiology and function are common in older populations, and in those older than 60 years, pneumonia is the major cause of infectious death. Understanding age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and how they affect both pulmonary and systemic(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) extravasation/sequestration in the lung and a dysregulated inflammatory response characterize the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previously, we have shown that hemorrhage (Hem) serves to prime PMN such that subsequent septic challenge [cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)] produces a pathological, inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND MIF is a critical mediator of the host defense, and is involved in both acute and chronic responses in the lung. Neutralization of MIF reduces neutrophil accumulation into the lung in animal models. We hypothesized that MIF, in the alveolar space, promotes neutrophil accumulation via activation of the CD74 receptor on macrophages. METHODS To(More)
Antibodies specific for the alpha 1 (V) chain and native collagen molecules containing the alpha 1 (V) chain have been used in electron immunohistochemical studies of rat kidney to determine the ultrastructural distribution of this class of collagen molecules. In addition, antibodies against type I collagen and whole basement membrane were used as markers(More)
BACKGROUND Oxygen may damage the lung directly via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or indirectly via the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) has been shown to protect the lung against hyperoxia in the newborn mouse model. The CXC-chemokine receptor antagonist(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, plaque instability, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. MIF in plasma and urine is significantly elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and elevated MIF in(More)
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an isoform of SOD normally found both intra- and extra-cellularly and accounting for most SOD activity in blood vessels. Here we explored the role of EC-SOD in protecting against brain damage induced by chronic hypoxia. EC-SOD Transgenic mice, were exposed to hypoxia (FiO2.1%) for 10 days (H-KI) and compared to(More)