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BACKGROUND The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a(More)
Francisella tularensis is a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine and the correlates of protection are not well understood. In particular, the relationship between the humoral and cellular immune response to F. tularensis and the relative importance of each in protection is controversial. Yet, understanding this relationship will(More)
We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the inactivated Francisella tularensis, a Category A intracellular mucosal pathogen, combined with IgG2a anti-F. tularensis monoclonal antibody (Ab), enhances protection against subsequent F. tularensis challenge. To understand the mechanism(s) involved, we examined the binding, internalization,(More)
The IgG Fc receptor II on human monocytes is polymorphic in its ability to bind mIgG1, and its isoelectric focusing pattern. To study the molecular basis of this polymorphism, a cDNA library from cell line K562, expressing two different allelic forms (high responder [HR] and low responder [LR]) of FcyRII, was used for cDNA cloning. We report the isolation(More)
Tularemia is caused by a gram-negative, intracellular bacterial pathogen, Francisella tularensis (Ft). The history weaponization of Ft in the past has elevated concerns that it could be used as a bioweapon or an agent of bioterrorism. Since the discovery of Ft, three broad approaches adopted for tularemia vaccine development have included inactivated, live(More)
Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells at the early stages of bacterial infection is important for host protection against the pathogen. Many intracellular bacteria, including Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia, utilize the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, to evade the host immune response. It is well established that(More)
Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a category A biothreat agent for which there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine. Ft can survive in a variety of habitats with a remarkable ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, Ft expresses distinct sets of antigens (Ags) when inside of macrophages (its in vivo host) as compared(More)
iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. David Parker for his support and guidance during the course studies the uni versi ty of Massachusetts Medical School. I would also like thank past and present technicians gradua t e studen ts laboratory for their assistance and helpful discussions. Special appreciation goes to my wife without who' understanding(More)
Fc gamma receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) is the only Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) which negatively regulates the immune response, when engaged by antigen- (Ag-) antibody (Ab) complexes. Thus, the generation of Ag-specific IgG in response to infection or immunization has the potential to downmodulate immune protection against infection. Therefore, we sought to determine(More)
Brian Franz received a $750 AAI Trainee Abstract Award and was invited to give an oral and poster presentation of his research entitled , " FcyRIIB Limits Protection Against F. tularensis LVS Challenge by Inactivated F. tularensis Immunogen. " Brian also received a $250 Albany Medical College Alumni Association Travel Stipend which he used for travel(More)