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In spite of the advances accomplished throughout the last decades, automatic speech recognition (ASR) is still a challenging and di$cult task. In particular, recognition systems based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) are e!ective under many circumstances, but do su!er from some major limitations that limit applicability of ASR technology in real-world(More)
Acoustic modeling in state-of-the-art speech recognition systems usually relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) with Gaussian emission densities. HMMs suffer from intrinsic limitations, mainly due to their arbitrary parametric assumption. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) appear to be a promising alternative in this respect, but they historically failed as a(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: a b s t r a c t The paper categorizes and reviews the state-of-the-art approaches to(More)
Estimation of probability density functions (pdf) is one major topic in pattern recognition. Parametric techniques rely on an arbitrary assumption on the form of the underlying, unknown distribution. Nonparametric techniques remove this assumption In particular, the Parzen Window (PW) relies on a combination of local window functions centered in the(More)
In spite of recent advances in automatic speech recognition, the performance of state-of-the-art speech recognisers fluctuates depending on the speaker. Speaker normalisation aims at the reduction of differences between the acoustic space of a new speaker and the training acoustic space of a given speech recogniser, improving performance. Normalisation is(More)