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In this paper, we developed a detailed mathematical model of dual action pneumatic actuators controlled with proportional spool valves. Effects of nonlinear flow through the valve, air compressibility in cylinder chambers, leakage between chambers, end of stroke inactive volume, and time delay and attenuation in the pneumatic lines were carefully(More)
I this article we developed two nonlinear force controllers based on the sliding mode control theory. We used the detailed mathematical model of a pneumatic system developed in the first part of the paper. The first controller uses the complete model, and exhibit superior performance both in the numerical simulation and experiments, but requires very(More)
Motor learning and neuro-adaptations to drugs of abuse rely upon neuronal signaling in the striatum. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine neurotransmission and behavioral responses to cocaine. Although the role for Cdk5 in neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus and in hippocampal-dependent learning has been demonstrated, its(More)
In the initial phase of severe head injury, dysautonomic abnormalities are frequent. Within the framework of a prospective study, evaluating the efficacy of continuous intrathecal Baclofen therapy (CIBT) on hypertonia during the initial recovery phase of severe head injury, the authors report on the preliminary results of this treatment on paroxysmal(More)
The development of rehabilitation programmes for traumatically brain-injured persons is a complex and multidisciplinary effort. One aspect of such programmes is the development of physical work capacity via exercise or physical conditioning. This paper reviews literature dealing with the physical work capacity following traumatic brain injury and its(More)
—In most applications that involve human–robot interactions , such as prosthetics, orthotics, rehabilitation, and loco-motion, compliant actuators with variable stiffness can be used to improve safety and comfort of the device. Another advantage of the stiffness control is minimizing the energy consumption by adjusting the stiffness of the actuator to the(More)
In 25 cases of post traumatic vegetative state persisting 3 months after the initial injury, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used with the aim to activate the cortex and the hope to produce some degree of functional recovery. Electrodes were stereotaxically implanted in the centrum medianum-parafascicularis complex. Bipolar stimulation was provided(More)
In view of assessing their late outcome and satisfaction of life, 79 out of 158 severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) patients who received inpatient rehabilitation in Aquitaine in 1993 were followed by phone interview. Results showed that 9 years on average after their injury, 65 to 85% of these patients were independent for daily living, whereas 35 to 55%(More)
Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of cells expressing luciferase is a valuable noninvasive technique for investigating molecular events and tumor dynamics in the living animal. Current usage is often limited to planar imaging, but tomographic imaging can enhance the usefulness of this technique in quantitative biomedical studies by allowing accurate(More)
Tremor is a rhythmical and involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part and it is one of the most common movement disorders. Orthotic devices have been under investigation as a noninvasive tremor suppression alternative to medication or surgery. The challenge in musculoskeletal tremor suppression is estimating and attenuating the tremor motion without(More)