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We have produced antibodies to the NRG2-alpha, NRG2-beta, NRG3 and NRG4 proteins and used these, and previously described antibodies to NRG1-alpha and NRG1-beta, to detect expression of each ligand by immunocytochemical staining in a series of 45 breast cancers. Each protein was expressed in a proportion of cases. Statistical analysis suggested that(More)
Brown adipocytes dissipate energy, whereas white adipocytes are an energy storage site. We explored the plasticity of different white adipose tissue depots in acquiring a brown phenotype by cold exposure. By comparing cold-induced genes in white fat to those enriched in brown compared with white fat, at thermoneutrality we defined a "brite" transcription(More)
A new family of epidermal growth factor-like proteins, the Neuregulins (NRGs), have recently been identified and are expressed in a range of normal tissues and in some forms of cancer including breast cancer. In this study we examined using immunohistochemical staining expression of NRG1alpha, NRG1beta, NRG2alpha, NRG2beta, NRG3 and NRG4 in sixty cases of(More)
The HER3 protein contributes to malignant transformation in breast and other cancer types as a consequence of elevated levels of expression, particularly in the presence of the HER2 protein. We show here that an antibody, called SGP1, to the extracellular domain of the HER3 receptor can inhibit completely Neuregulin stimulated growth of cultured breast(More)
The levels of expression of the four receptors and eleven ligands composing the epidermal growth factor family were measured using immunohistochemical staining in one hundred cases of breast cancer. All of the family were expressed to some degree in some cases; however, individual cases showed a very wide range of expression of the family from essentially(More)
PURPOSE The neuregulin (NRG) 1, 2, and 3 genes undergo extensive alternative mRNA splicing, which results in variants that show structural and functional diversity. The aims of this study were to establish whether the fourth member of this family, NRG4, is expressed in prostate cancer, if it is alternatively spliced and whether any functional differences(More)
Incubation of mammalian tumor cells with either soluble of insoluble fractions (10 to 100 micrograms/ml) of Fusobacterium nucleatum sensitizes them to the destructive activity of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector cells in the presence of anti-F. nucleatum antisera. All three types of ADCC effector cells are capable of destroying F.(More)
The neuregulin 4 gene encodes at least five different variants (designated A1, A2, B1, B2 and B3) produced as a result of alternative splicing. We have determined their sites of expression in normal human adult tissues using isoform-specific antibodies. Their expression is cell type specific and differs in subcellular location suggesting that they may have(More)
Islet cell growth and function are affected by ligands from the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. We describe here the expression, regional distribution, and effect on growth and secretion of insulin of a subset of these, the neuregulin (NRG) family. The expression of NRG1α, NRG1β, NRG2α, NRG2β, NRG3, and NRG4 in rat islets was determined using(More)
The relative avidity and titer of antibodies representing the 4 immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses (IgG1-4) reactive with Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (-LPS), streptokinase (SK) and tetanus toxoid (TT) in the sera of patients having adult periodontitis and of healthy controls were measured. Patient antibody titers to P.(More)