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CONTEXT Regular intake of cocoa-containing foods is linked to lower cardiovascular mortality in observational studies. Short-term interventions of at most 2 weeks indicate that high doses of cocoa can improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure (BP) due to the action of the cocoa polyphenols, but the clinical effect of low habitual cocoa intake(More)
Although cannabis belongs to the most widely used drugs among adolescents, little is known about its acute and lasting neurobehavioral effects during critical developmental periods. In the present study we investigated acute and long-term behavioral effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in pubertal and adult rats. Chronic WIN (1.2(More)
The extraneuronal monoamine transporter plays an important role in the inactivation of monoamine transmitters. A basal extraneuronal tissue expression of this transporter has been reported, but it is also expressed in CNS glia. As little is known about the expression pattern and the function of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter in the brain, we(More)
Calcium-independent noradrenaline release was studied in the isolated perfused rat heart under conditions of normoxia, cyanide intoxication, and ischemia. The release of endogenous noradrenaline and dihydroxyphenylglycol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of dihydroxyphenylglycol, the main neuronal noradrenaline(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, is unclear. Current hypotheses suggest an abnormal function of the neuronal sodium-dependent dopamine transporter DAT to contribute to cell death in the dopaminergic system, but it has not been investigated whether(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that have been implicated in tissue growth and differentiation. Several BMPs are expressed in embryonic and adult brain. We show now that BMP-2, -6 and -7 and(More)
BACKGROUND In real-time PCR, it is necessary to consider the efficiency of amplification (EA) of amplicons in order to determine initial target levels properly. EAs can be deduced from standard curves, but these involve extra effort and cost and may yield invalid EAs. Alternatively, EA can be extracted from individual fluorescence curves. Unfortunately,(More)
Discrimination between the amplification of mRNA and contaminating genomic DNA is a common problem when performing a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Even after treatment of the samples with DNAse, it is possible that negative controls (samples in which no reverse transcriptase was added) will give positive results. This indicates(More)