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OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed(More)
BACKGROUND Selenium, an essential micronutrient, has received considerable attention for its antioxidant properties. In addition, selenium may affect several cardiometabolic risk factors, such as glucose homeostasis and lipid concentrations. However, the effects of selenium intake on the lipid profile in selenium-replete populations, such as the United(More)
BACKGROUND Lipid peroxidation may be important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly in its earliest stages. Evidence predominantly from in vitro studies suggests that antioxidant vitamins can prevent lipid peroxidation and that vitamin C and vitamin E have synergistic effects. However, in vivo evidence in support of these hypotheses is(More)
BACKGROUND Racial differences in cardiovascular risk factors do not fully explain the higher prevalence of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in black adults. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether any of this excess risk may be explained by vitamin D status, which has been widely documented to be lower in blacks than in whites. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVE Impaired insulin sensitivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although calorie restriction and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity, the effects of modifying macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity are uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on insulin sensitivity of a carbohydrate-rich diet(More)
OBJECTIVE Fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are of interest for monitoring short-term glycemic control in patients with diabetes; however, their associations with diabetes risk are uncharacterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations of fructosamine, glycated(More)
BACKGROUND Disparities in health and healthcare are extensively documented across clinical conditions, settings, and dimensions of healthcare quality. In particular, studies show that ethnic minorities and persons with low socioeconomic status receive poorer quality of interpersonal or patient-centered care than whites and persons with higher socioeconomic(More)
Increased acid excretion may promote renal injury. To evaluate this in African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis, we studied the association between the net endogenous acid production and progression of kidney disease in 632 patients in the AASK trial. Protein and potassium intakes were estimated from 24 h urea nitrogen and potassium excretion,(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative capacity is decreased in type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity is a cause or consequence of diabetes is unknown. Our purpose is to evaluate whether lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, is associated with incident diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a case-cohort study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in(More)
OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)