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BACKGROUND Delirium is a profound neuropsychiatric disturbance precipitated by acute illness. Although dementia is the major risk factor this has typically been considered a binary quantity (i.e., cognitively impaired versus cognitively normal) with respect to delirium risk. We used humans and mice to address the hypothesis that the severity of underlying(More)
Dementia prevalence increases with age and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) accounts for up to 75% of cases. However, significant variability and overlap exists in the extent of amyloid-β and Tau pathology in AD and non-demented populations and it is clear that other factors must influence progression of cognitive decline, perhaps independent of effects on amyloid(More)
Microgliosis and astrogliosis are standard pathological features of neurodegenerative disease. Microglia are primed by chronic neurodegeneration such that toll-like receptor agonists, such as LPS, drive exaggerated cytokine responses on this background. However, sterile inflammatory insults are more common than direct CNS infection in the degenerating brain(More)
It is increasingly clear that systemic inflammation has both adaptive and deleterious effects on the brain. However, detailed comparisons of brain effects of systemic challenges with different pro-inflammatory cytokines are lacking. In the present study, we challenged female C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally with LPS (100 µg/kg), IL-1β (15 or 50 µg/kg), TNF-α(More)
It is increasingly clear that systemic inflammation has both adaptive and deleterious effects on the brain. However, detailed comparisons of brain effects of systemic challenges with different pro-inflammatory cytokines are lacking. In the present study, we challenged female C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally with LPS (100 µg/kg), IL-1β (15 or 50 µg/kg), TNF-α(More)
General rights Copyright for the publications made accessible via the Edinburgh Research Explorer is retained by the author(s) and / or other copyright owners and it is a condition of accessing these publications that users recognise and abide by the legal requirements associated with these rights. Take down policy The University of Edinburgh has made every(More)
Inflammation influences chronic neurodegeneration but its precise roles are not yet clear. Systemic inflammation caused by infection, trauma or co-morbidity can alter the brain's inflammatory status, produce acute cognitive impairments, such as delirium, and drive new pathology and accelerated decline. Consistent with this, elevated systemic TNF-a is(More)
The effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in peripheral cells are well characterized but, although several TLRs are expressed on cells of the brain, the consequences of their activation on neuronal function remain to be fully investigated, particularly in the context of assessing their potential as therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases.(More)
  • D H J Davis, D T Skelly, C Murray, E Hennessy, Norton, Rahkonen +19 others
  • 2015
(2015) 'Worsening cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative pathology progressively increase risk for delirium.', American journal of geriatric psychiatry., 23 (4). pp. The full-text may be used and/or reproduced, and given to third parties in any format or medium, without prior permission or charge, for personal research or study, educational, or(More)