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The Reaction Level Scale (RLS85) is a "coma scale" for the direct assessment of overall reaction level in patients with acute brain disorders. It is devised for reliable use even in the management of patients who are difficult to assess, such as intubated patients and patients with swollen eyelids. We here present the manual of the RLS85 and the guidelines(More)
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Reaction Level Scale (RLS85) were compared for rating neurosurgical patients in regard to ranking order of deficit severity, interobserver variability, and coverage for relevant factors. Four physicians, four registered nurses, and four assistant nurses performed 72 pairwise ratings on 47 neurosurgical patients. The rank(More)
This study compares the safety and effectiveness of two methods for the prophylaxis of post-operative thromboembolism in neurosurgical patients: A: low-dose heparin (5,000 IU X 2 s.c.) started preoperatively and continued daily for one week post-operatively, and B: per-operative electrical calf muscle stimulation with groups of impulses plus post-operative(More)
The human auditory sensitivity in detecting linear frequency ramps of a continuous pure tone has been studied. It is shown that for short ramp durations (less than 200 msec) discrimination depends on the difference between base and plateau frequencies, the mean threshold being about 3 Hz at 1 kHz. For longer ramp durations (greater than 200 msec),(More)
Slow evoked cortical potentials in response to linear frequency ramps of a continuous pure tone with a 1 kHz base frequency have been recorded from ten relatively young subjects with hearing loss of cochlear origin. At small frequency ramps, the N1-latency of their responses to the three ramp durations studied (20, 100, 500 msec) was significantly longer(More)
The effect on the experimental tooth pain threshold of conditioning electrical stimulation via needles or surface electrodes applied to the hands and cheeks was studied in 34 dental students. Conditioning stimulation with 2/sec. gave a slowly increasing pain threshold followed by a slow return to the control level in the post-conditioning period. In each(More)
A new scale for assessment of overall responsiveness, the Reaction Level Scale (RLS 85), which has been shown to have better reliability than the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), has been tested in four neurosurgical departments regarding inter-observer agreement and coverage i.e. the proportion of patients that could be assessed by the scale. In a carefully(More)
The auditory sensitivity for detecting linear frequency sweeps of a continuous pure tone has been studied in ten young subjects with cochlear hearing loss. The mean thresholds were elevated by a factor of 2.8 as compared with a normal group over the whole range of ramp durations studied (10-500 msec). The results show that this elevation is most likely(More)
Slow evoked cortical potentials from ten young normal-hearing subjects have been recorded as responses to linear frequency ramps of a continuous pure tone. Frequency changes from 10 to 500 Hz were studied; the rate of frequency change was varied from 0.02 to 50 kHz/s while the duration of the change was varied from 10 to 500 ms. The rate of frequency change(More)
One hundred sixty-six papers published in seven neurosurgical journals from 1983 through 1985 have been surveyed to determine the methods used for assessment of overall patient responsiveness in acute cerebral disorders (coma grading). Fifty-one different coma scales or modifications were found. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) sum score (that is, the sum of(More)