Eddie Mun Wai Tong

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A considerable amount of research in hope is driven by Snyder’s (1994) model which proposes that hope is positively associated with agency thinking and pathways thinking. However, the current research suggests that hope as understood by the layperson (Hope) is only associated with agency thinking and not with pathways thinking. This was found over four(More)
According to appraisal theorists, anger involves a negative event, usually blocking a goal, caused by another person. Critics argue that other-agency is unnecessary, since people can be angry at themselves, and thus that appraisal theory is wrong about anger. In two studies, we compared anger, self-anger, shame, and guilt, and found that self-anger shared(More)
UNLABELLED Evidence suggests that physiological reactivity to mental and emotional stress may be influenced by personality traits. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the relationship between, emotionally based personality traits, Neuroticism (N) and Extraversion (E), and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) during mental arithmetic (MA) and anger recall(More)
OBJECTIVE This research examined hemodynamic processes in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) as a function of task, ethnicity and trait hostility. METHOD One hundred and fourteen male patrol officers from the Singapore Police Force participated in this experimental study. Trait hostility was measured using the interpersonal hostility assessment technique to(More)
The demand-control model for coronary heart disease was tested using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Male patrol officers (N = 118) wore ambulatory blood pressure monitors during 1 of their day shifts with readings taken every 30 min. Following each reading, officers completed a questionnaire using a handheld computer. Significant interactions were(More)
Although appraisal theories have received strong empirical support, there are methodological concerns about the research, including biased recall, heuristic responding, ethical issues, and weak and unrealistic induction of emotions in laboratories. To provide a more ecologically valid test of appraisal theories, the authors used ecological momentary(More)
Little research has examined ways in which mindfulness is associated with affect dynamics, referring to patterns of affect fluctuations in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), the present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and several types of affect dynamics, namely affect variability, affect inertia, affect(More)
This study tested the hypotheses that ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure would be higher for individuals high but not low in hostility when they experienced negative affect or social stress and that this interaction would be stronger for Indians compared with other Singapore ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was done on 108 male(More)
Although appraisal theorists have pointed out that appraisal-emotion relationships should vary as a function of personality traits, evidence demonstrating this is limited and inconsistent. To examine this issue, Ecological Momentary Assessment was employed in which undergraduates indicated their negative emotions and appraisals at regular intervals for 2(More)
In light of the lack of studies examining the cognitive components of affective chronometry, this research examined the appraisals associated with emotion habituation, using anger as the emotion of focus. Anger and its appraisals were assessed repeatedly over a day in the participants' naturalistic contexts. The trajectory of decline in anger over time(More)