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AIM This article describes the first stage of a research project. The aim was to establish the frequency and pattern of assault, and the use, effectiveness and safety of breakaway and restraint techniques, in an intensive care unit for mental health patients. Views of nursing staff with regard to training and the use of restraint were also explored. (More)
The social dysfunction index (SDI) is a new measure designed to assess social dysfunction in schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses. It is intended to serve clinical and research purposes. Raters can be readily trained and there is low respondent burden with its use. Good psychometric properties were identified in three studies (sample sizes 33, 67(More)
A recurrent criticism of measurement in schizophrenia research is that symptom suppression is overemphasized as the sole criterion measure of treatment effectiveness, to the neglect of other endpoints, such as the quality of life and subjective experience of the patient. This paper addresses the current status of response measures used in schizophrenia(More)
Antipsychotic response to clozapine varies markedly among patients with schizophrenia. The disposition of clozapine is dependent, in part, on the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2 enzyme in vivo. In theory, a very high CYP1A2 activity may lead to subtherapeutic concentrations and treatment resistance to clozapine. This prospective case study evaluates the clinical(More)
Recall of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) as a test for cell-mediated immune competence was assessed in 254 subjects using the Multitest device which delivers seven skin-test antigens intradermally; 77 subjects were tested concurrently by Multitest and a conventional panel of six antigens. Similar results were obtained with Multitest and the(More)
Positive and negative symptoms are measurable characteristics that may represent core features of schizophrenia and offer a quantitative approach for studying the genetics of schizophrenia and related disorders. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess 72 members of five families segregating schizophrenia. The study confirmed high(More)
Treatment-refractory schizophrenia is a major clinical problem for which there is relatively little scientific information, and no consensus has been reached on approaches to treatment. The pharmacotherapy used for 103 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at one psychiatric hospital was examined. Data were gathered on(More)
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug and displays efficacy in 30% to 60% of patients with schizophrenia who do not respond to traditional antipsychotics. A clozapine concentration greater than 1,150 nmol/L increases the probability of antipsychotic efficacy. However, plasma clozapine concentration can vary more than 45-fold during long-term(More)
Cell mediated immunity (CMI) to hepatitis B viral antigens was studied in BALB/mice after immunization with purified hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or core antigen (HBcAg), with adjuvants. The two in vitro assays for cell-mediated immunity (CMI), utilizing lymph node cells, were release of interferon after exposure to antigen, and blast transformation(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluates clozapine and its present role in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. METHOD Clozapine's current clinical status is reviewed, as is its position with respect to other treatment options. RESULTS Clozapine represents the prototype of "atypical" neuroleptics, with evidence of clinical efficacy in both positive and negative(More)