Edana Cassol

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The capacity of macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is known to be modulated by cytokines and other extracellular stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that cytokine-induced polarization of human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) into either classical (M1) or alternatively activated (M2a) MDM is associated with a reduced capacity to support(More)
BACKGROUND Immune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression in HIV infection. Combinatorial plasma biomarker signatures that represent surrogate markers of immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have not been defined. Here, we identify a plasma inflammatory biomarker signature(More)
Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the biochemical details and underlying mechanisms of these disorders have not been defined. METHODS Untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma was performed for 32 HIV patients with low nadir CD4 counts (<300 cells/ul) on protease inhibitor(More)
Macrophages are terminally differentiated cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system that also encompasses dendritic cells, circulating blood monocytes, and committed myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Both macrophages and their monocytic precursors can change their functional state in response to microenvironmental cues exhibiting a marked(More)
OBJECTIVE(S) HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Some features of HAND resemble those of age-associated cognitive decline in the absence of HIV, suggesting that overlapping mechanisms may contribute to neurocognitive impairment.(More)
HIV infection of mononuclear phagocytes (MP), mostly as tissue macrophages, is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and its progression to AIDS. Although the general mechanism of infection is not dissimilar to that of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring via interaction of the viral envelope with CD4 and a chemokine receptor (usually CCR5), other(More)
BACKGROUND Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is endemic in South Africa and the clinical manifestation of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) represents a significant clinical problem. Whereas the positive effects of HAART on the regression of KS have been well established, less is known about the role of herpesvirus-specific cellular(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a frequent comorbidity in HIV infection that has been associated with worse treatment outcomes and increased mortality. Recent studies suggest that increased innate immune activation and tryptophan catabolism are associated with higher risk of depression in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, but the mechanisms(More)
BACKGROUND Microbial translocation contributes to immune activation and disease progression during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, its role in the African AIDS epidemic remains controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between markers of monocyte activation, plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and HIV-1 RNA(More)