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Lymphatic research has progressed rapidly in recent years. Though lymphatic dysfunction has been found in a wide array of disorders from transplant rejection to cancer metastasis, to date, there is still little effective treatment for lymphatic diseases. The cornea offers an optimal site for lymphatic research due to its accessible location, transparent(More)
PURPOSE We recently reported that corneal lymphatic vessels develop integrin alpha-9 (Itga-9)-positive valves during inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of Itga-9 in corneal lymphatic valve formation in vivo and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) functions in vitro. METHODS Standard murine suture(More)
Anti-VEGF drugs that are used in conjunction with laser ablation to treat patients with diabetic retinopathy suffer from short half-lives in the vitreous of the eye resulting in the need for frequent intravitreal injections. To improve the intravitreal half-life of anti-VEGF drugs, such as the VEGF decoy receptor sFlt-1, we developed multivalent(More)
Current anti-VEGF drugs for patients with diabetic retinopathy suffer from short residence time in the vitreous of the eye. In order to maintain biologically effective doses of drug for inhibiting retinal neovascularization, patients are required to receive regular monthly injections of drug, which often results in low patient compliance and progression of(More)
Multivalent conjugates (MVCs) (conjugation of multiple proteins to a linear polymer chain) are powerful for improving the bioactivity and pharmacokinetics of a bioactive molecule. Since this effect is highly dependent upon the valency of the conjugated proteins, it is imperative to have a technique for analysis of the conjugation ratio. Studies of MVCs have(More)
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