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In many learning or inference tasks human behavior approximates that of a Bayesian ideal observer, suggesting that, at some level, cognition can be described as Bayesian inference. However, a number of findings have highlighted an intriguing mismatch between human behavior and standard assumptions about optimality: People often appear to make decisions(More)
Multiple object tracking is a task commonly used to investigate the architecture of human visual attention. Human participants show a distinctive pattern of successes and failures in tracking experiments that is often attributed to limits on an object system, a tracking module, or other specialized cognitive structures. Here we use a computational analysis(More)
We present a method for discovering patterns of selectivity in fMRI data for experiments with multiple stimuli/tasks. We introduce a representation of the data as profiles of selectivity using linear regression estimates, and employ mixture model density estimation to identify functional systems with distinct types of selectivity. The method characterizes(More)
Recent work suggests that people predict how objects interact in a manner consistent with Newtonian physics, but with additional uncertainty. However, the sources of uncertainty have not been examined. In this study, we measure perceptual noise in initial conditions and stochasticity in the physical model used to make predictions. Participants predicted the(More)
Research into human models of intuitive physics typically falls into one of two camps, either claiming that intuitive physics is biased and not representative of real physics, or claiming that it consists of a collection of veridical physical laws. Here we investigate the causes of this tension, suggesting that prediction is based on real physics, but(More)
of study: A multiscale context model of memory. Abstract When individuals learn facts (e.g., foreign language vocabulary) over multiple study sessions, the temporal spacing of study has a significant impact on memory retention. Behavioral experiments have shown a nonmonotonic relationship between spacing and retention: short or long intervals between study(More)
We develop a method for unsupervised analysis of functional brain images that learns group-level patterns of functional response. Our algorithm is based on a generative model that comprises two main layers. At the lower level, we express the functional brain response to each stimulus as a binary activation variable. At the next level, we define a prior over(More)
People must often infer what might have transpired in the past to bring about the present state of the world, a task called retrodiction. We hypothesize that retrodiction relies on similar cognitive mechanisms to prediction – inferring possible futures based on the present state of the world. Here we investigate how people perform on physical reasoning(More)
Ambiguous images present a challenge to the visual system: How can uncertainty about the causes of visual inputs be represented when there are multiple equally plausible causes? A Bayesian ideal observer should represent uncertainty in the form of a posterior probability distribution over causes. However, in many real-world situations, computing this(More)