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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene family, has been shown to influence the survival and differentiation of specific classes of neurons in vitro and in vivo. The possibility that neurotrophins are also involved in processes of neuronal plasticity has only recently begun to receive attention. To determine(More)
The proper function of immune surveillance requires well-coordinated mechanisms in order to guide the patrolling immune cells through peripheral tissues and into secondary lymphoid organs. Analyzing gene-targeted mice, we identified the chemokine receptor CCR7 as an important organizer of the primary immune response. CCR7-deficient mice show severely(More)
Mouse embryos undergo genome-wide methylation reprogramming by demethylation in early preimplantation development, followed by remethylation thereafter. Here we show that genome-wide reprogramming is conserved in several mammalian species and ask whether it also occurs in embryos cloned with the use of highly methylated somatic donor nuclei. Normal bovine,(More)
It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
In this study, we evaluated mitochondrial distribution and ATP content of individual bovine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM). Cumulus-oocyte complexes were classified according to morphological criteria: category 1, homogeneous oocyte cytoplasm, compact multilayered cumulus oophorus; category 2, cytoplasm with small inhomogeneous areas,(More)
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is required for the development of most sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. Using electrophysiological techniques in mice with null mutations of the NT-3 gene, we show that two functionally specific subsets of cutaneous afferents differentially require this factor: D-hair receptors and slowly adapting mechanoreceptors; other(More)
CNTF is a cytosolic molecule expressed postnatally in myelinating Schwann cells and in a subpopulation of astrocytes. Although CNTF administration prevents lesion-mediated and genetically determined motor neuron degeneration, its physiological function remained elusive. Here it is reported that abolition of CNTF gene expression by homologous recombination(More)
During differentiation, somatic nuclei acquire highly specialized DNA and chromatin modifications, which are thought to result in cellular memory of the differentiated state. Upon somatic nuclear transfer into oocytes, the donor nucleus may have to undergo reprogramming of these epigenetic marks in order to achieve totipotency. This may involve changes in(More)
We describe the phenotype of gene-targeted mice lacking the putative chemokine receptor BLR1. In normal mice, this receptor is expressed on mature B cells and a subpopulation of T helper cells. Blr1 mutant mice lack inguinal lymph nodes and possess no or only a few phenotypically abnormal Peyer's patches. The migration of lymphocytes into splenic follicles(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates key processes of cell biology, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation during development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Canonical EGFR activation involves the binding of seven peptide growth factors. These ligands are synthesized as transmembrane proteins comprising an N-terminal(More)