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Snarks are cubic graphs with chromatic index 0 = 4. A snark G is called critical if 0 (G?fv; wg) = 3 for any two adjacent vertices v and w, and it is called bicritical if 0 (G ? fv; wg) = 3 for any two vertices v and w. We construct innnite families of critical snarks which are not bicritical. This solves a problem stated by Nedela and Skoviera in 7].
We develop four constructions for nowhere-zero 5-ows of 3-regular graphs which satisfy special structural conditions. Using these constructions we show a minimal counterexample to Tutte's 5-ow conjecture is of order 44 and therefore every bridgeless graph of nonorientable genus 5 has a nowhere-zero 5-ow. One of the structural properties is formulated in(More)
Snarks are bridgeless cubic graphs with chromatic index χ = 4. A snark G is called critical if χ (G − {v, w}) = 3, for any two adjacent vertices v and w. For any k ≥ 2 we construct cyclically 5-edge connected critical snarks G having an independent set I of at least k vertices such that χ (G − I) = 4. For k = 2 this solves a problem of Nedela andŠkoviera(More)
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through the lamina propria to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. We compared the relative abilities of various aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, and obligately anaerobic bacteria to translocate from the GI tract to the MLN in(More)
Translocation is defined as the passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. The extent of translocation of certain indigenous, oxygen-tolerant bacteria from the cecum to the MLN, spleen, liver, kidney, and peritoneal cavity were determined in diassociated or triassociated gnotobiotic mice.(More)
Two BASIC microcomputer programs, ESTRIPc and KINET, were used to analyze the kinetics of bacterial clearance from the blood and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice. Because of the similarities between the clearance of bacteria and the clearance of drugs from tissue, blood pharmacokinetic techniques were applied to the analysis of bacterial clearance data. The(More)