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- Eckhard Steffen
- Graphs and Combinatorics
- 1999

Snarks are cubic graphs with chromatic index 0 = 4. A snark G is called critical if 0 (G?fv; wg) = 3 for any two adjacent vertices v and w, and it is called bicritical if 0 (G ? fv; wg) = 3 for any two vertices v and w. We construct innnite families of critical snarks which are not bicritical. This solves a problem stated by Nedela and Skoviera in 7].

- Eckhard Steffen
- Discrete Mathematics
- 1998

- Eckhard Steffen
- Discrete Mathematics
- 2004

- Eckhard Steffen
- Journal of Graph Theory
- 2015

- Eckhard Steffen
- Journal of Graph Theory
- 1996

We develop four constructions for nowhere-zero 5-ows of 3-regular graphs which satisfy special structural conditions. Using these constructions we show a minimal counterexample to Tutte's 5-ow conjecture is of order 44 and therefore every bridgeless graph of nonorientable genus 5 has a nowhere-zero 5-ow. One of the structural properties is formulated in… (More)

- Gunnar Brinkmann, Eckhard Steffen
- Ars Comb.
- 1998

- Stefan Grünewald, Eckhard Steffen
- Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory
- 1999

Snarks are bridgeless cubic graphs with chromatic index χ = 4. A snark G is called critical if χ (G − {v, w}) = 3, for any two adjacent vertices v and w. For any k ≥ 2 we construct cyclically 5-edge connected critical snarks G having an independent set I of at least k vertices such that χ (G − I) = 4. For k = 2 this solves a problem of Nedela andŠkoviera… (More)

- E K Steffen, R D Berg, E A Deitch
- The Journal of infectious diseases
- 1988

Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through the lamina propria to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. We compared the relative abilities of various aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, and obligately anaerobic bacteria to translocate from the GI tract to the MLN in… (More)

- E K Steffen, R D Berg
- Infection and immunity
- 1983

Translocation is defined as the passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. The extent of translocation of certain indigenous, oxygen-tolerant bacteria from the cecum to the MLN, spleen, liver, kidney, and peritoneal cavity were determined in diassociated or triassociated gnotobiotic mice.… (More)

- B Cheewatrakoolpong, E K Steffen, R D Brown, R D Berg
- Journal of immunological methods
- 1983

Two BASIC microcomputer programs, ESTRIPc and KINET, were used to analyze the kinetics of bacterial clearance from the blood and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice. Because of the similarities between the clearance of bacteria and the clearance of drugs from tissue, blood pharmacokinetic techniques were applied to the analysis of bacterial clearance data. The… (More)