Ebert Cawood

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Intermittent claudication has been studied in cardiovascular surveys but limited information is available on asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic disease and relation to ischaemic heart disease in the Edinburgh Artery Study. A cross-sectional survey was(More)
The aim was to determine if certain risk factors in the general population are more strongly related to peripheral arterial disease than to ischemic heart disease. Arterial disease in the lower limbs was measured by means of the World Health Organization questionnaire on intermittent claudication, the ankle brachial pressure index, and a reactive hyperemia(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the quality of semen has changed in a group of over 500 Scottish men born between 1951 and 1973. DESIGN Retrospective review of data on semen quality collected in a single laboratory over 11 years and according to World Health Organisation guidelines. SETTING Programme of gamete biology research funded by Medical Research(More)
Recent reports have indicated a decrease in semen quality of men in some countries, and suggested regional differences. A study was undertaken of semen samples from 1082 fertile men from four European cities (Copenhagen, Denmark; Paris, France; Edinburgh, Scotland; and Turku, Finland). Semen analysis was standardized, inter-laboratory differences in(More)
BACKGROUND A previous European study found a longer time to pregnancy (TTP) among fertile women from Paris compared with women from other Western European countries. A co-ordinated, cross-sectional study of pregnant couples from Denmark (Copenhagen), France (Paris), Scotland (Edinburgh) and Finland (Turku) was therefore undertaken to assess differences in(More)
Animal studies and human intervention trials have demonstrated the cancer chemopreventive properties of plant phytoestrogens, and phytoestrogen supplements are now widely available 'over-the-counter'. However, consumption of phytoestrogen-rich diets can cause impaired fertility and reproductive tract disorders in some animals and the apparent decline in(More)
One hundred and forty-one women, aged 40-60 years, recruited from the community were assessed with an initial interview, plus four interviews at intervals of 1 week and blood samples. The objective was to investigate the determinants of sexuality and well-being in this sample. Measures included interview ratings of sexual function, Frenken Sexual Experience(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of the menopause on androgen production is poorly understood. We have investigated the impact of the menopause, as well as other factors such as age, body mass index (BMI) and cigarette smoking, on ovarian and adrenal androgen levels in women aged 40-60 years. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of blood hormones sampled weekly over one(More)
Four hundred and six insulin-dependent diabetic women completed a Menstrual Health Questionnaire published in Balance. Sixty-seven percent of women experienced changes in blood glucose levels or glycosuria premenstrually and 70% during the menstrual phase. Changes were more common in women who regarded themselves as suffering from premenstrual syndrome.(More)
An increase in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is frequently associated with major depression. During the premenstrual phase of their reproductive cycle some women experience depressive mood changes that are proposed to be of similar intensity to that experienced during periods of major depression. This study examined the(More)