Eberhard R . Horn

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Young fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were exposed to microgravity (micro g) for 9 to 10 days during space missions STS-55 and STS-84, or to hypergravity (hg) for 9 days. Young animals (stages 11-12), which had not yet developed the roll-induced static vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) at micro g- and hg-onset, and older ones (stages 14-16), which had already(More)
UNLABELLED During space flights, tadpoles of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis occasionally develop upward bended tails (tail lordosis). The tail lordosis disappears after re-entry to 1g within a couple of days. The mechanisms responsible for the induction of the tail lordosis are unknown; physical conditions such as weight de-loading or physiological factors(More)
In tadpoles of Xenopus laevis, the effects of microgravity on the development of the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) was investigated. Special attention was focused on sensitive periods and the minimum duration of microgravity exposure by which the development of the rVOR is affected. The peak-to-peak excursion (rVOR amplitude) of the rVOR(More)
1. A feature of sensory, neuronal and motor systems is the existence of a critical period during their development. Modification of environmental conditions during this specific period of life affects development in a long-term manner, or even irreversibly. Deprivation is the prefered approach to study the existence and duration of critical periods. For(More)
In Xenopus laevis tadpoles, we studied the static vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) in relation to modifications of the gravitational environment to find basic mechanisms of how altered gravitational forces (AGF) affect this reflex. Animals were exposed to microgravity during space flight or hypergravity (3g) for 4 to 12 days. Basic observations were that(More)
Stimulus deprivation or stimulus augmentation can induce long-lasting modifications to sensory and motor systems. If deprivation is effective only during a limited period of life this phase is called "critical period." A critical period was described for the development of the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) of Xenopus laevis using spaceflights.(More)
Sensory systems are characterized by developmental periods during which they are susceptible to environmental modifications, in particular to sensory deprivation. The experiment, XENOPUS, on Soyuz in 2008 was the fourth space flight experiment since 1993 to explore whether tail and vestibular development of Xenopus laevis has a gravity-related critical(More)
In 25 rats, an intracerebral hematoma was created in the foreleg area of the motor cortex by injection of 50 microliters blood. After the lesion, 13 were treated with flunarizine and 12 with the solvent. Neurological testing was performed by measuring the running time on a rotating platform. In animals with hemiparesis, the flunarizine group (n = 7) showed(More)
In the fish Oreochromis mossambicus, light conditions affect the development of the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR). During development under continous light-dark conditions the rVOR amplitude, which is the maximum eye movement during a complete 360 degrees lateral roll, shows a secondary drop after a first peak at stage 17 by 64% (36.3 degrees(More)