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Pseudoreplication in playback experiments, revisited a decade later
Correspondence: D. E. Kroodsma, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A. (e-mail: kroodsma@bio.umass.edu). About 10 years ago, several papers in Animal Behaviour
Testing the roles of species in mixed-species bird flocks of a Sri Lankan rain forest
TLDR
The results show that birds with high propensity to flock, such as insectivores, use the vocalizations of nuclear species to locate flocks and that a sentinel species may be as attractive as a highly gregarious species.
The composition and spatial organisation of mixed- species flocks in a Sri Lankan rainforest
TLDR
The composition of flocks was generally stable over time, changing little over the annual cycle or between the 1980s and the 1990s, although the abundance of some species appears to have changed following regeneration after logging in the 1970s.
ALARM CALLING IN SRI LANKAN MIXED-SPECIES BIRD FLOCKS
TLDR
It is suggested that birds in mixed-species flocks may be particularly aware of aerial predators for two reasons: a “numbers effect” whereby nongregarious species are more aware of predators when surrounded by large numbers of other species; and an “information effect,’ whereby species differ in the information available in their alarm calls, leading to an accumulation of information in a mixed- species flock.
Shifting Baselines on a Tropical Forest Frontier: Extirpations Drive Declines in Local Ecological Knowledge
TLDR
It is suggested that engaging older members of the community and linking the preservation of LEK to biodiversity conservation may help generate support for conservation.
Context-dependent vocal mimicry in a passerine bird
How do birds select the sounds they mimic, and in what contexts do they use vocal mimicry? Some birds show a preference for mimicking other species' alarm notes, especially in situations when they
The benefits of joining mixed-species flocks for Greater Racket-tailed Drongos Dicrurus paradiseus
TLDR
It is concluded that drongos are better classified as commensalists than as parasites, as they exact only a small cost on other species in flocks; they may even be mutualists, because they make sensitive and reliable alarm calls to which other species react.
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