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In presence of oleate and taurocholate, differentiated CaCo-2 cell monolayers on membranes were able to assemble and secrete chylomicrons. Under these conditions, both cellular uptake and secretion into chylomicrons of beta-carotene (beta-C) were curvilinear, time-dependent (2-16 h), saturable, and concentration-dependent (apparent K(m) of 7-10 microM)(More)
Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some studies have found that LDL enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are less susceptible to oxidation than LDL enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). A high MUFA diet is an alternative to a lower-fat blood(More)
Data suggest that intestinal carotenoid absorption is a facilitated process. The present study was conducted to determine whether carotenoids and cholesterol share common pathways (transporters) for their intestinal absorption. Differentiated Caco-2 cells on membranes were incubated (16 h) with a carotenoid (1 micromol/L) with or without ezetimibe (EZ;(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. beta-carotene(beta-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7-9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken up by cells to an(More)
We have investigated the esterification by liver membranes of retinol bound to cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). When CRBP carrying [3H]retinol as its ligand was purified from rat liver cytosol and incubated with rat liver microsomes, a significant fraction of the [3H]retinol was converted to [3H]retinyl ester. Esterification of the CRBP-bound(More)
Carotenoids may protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation, a process implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Our previous studies showed that in vitro enrichment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with beta-carotene protected it from cell-mediated oxidation. However, in vitro enrichment with either lutein or lycopene actually enhanced oxidation(More)
Mechanisms involved in the digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A require the participation of several proteins. Dietary retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestine by the pancreatic enzyme, pancreatic triglyceride lipase, and intestinal brush border enzyme, phospholipase B. Unesterified retinol taken up by the enterocyte is complexed with(More)
β-Carotene is the major dietary source of provitamin A. Central cleavage of β-carotene catalyzed by β-carotene oxygenase 1 yields two molecules of retinaldehyde. Subsequent oxidation produces all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which functions as a ligand for a family of nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Eccentric cleavage of(More)
Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons(More)
Cell culture models are useful for studying intestinal absorption and metabolism of carotenoids. The human intestinal cell line, Caco-2, has been the most widely used model for these studies. The PF11 and TC7 clones of Caco-2 exhibit beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase activity, a key enzyme in the conversion of carotenoids to vitamin A. Studies on the recent(More)