Earl G. Brown

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Ideally, an oncolytic virus will replicate preferentially in malignant cells, have the ability to treat disseminated metastases, and ultimately be cleared by the patient. Here we present evidence that the attenuated vesicular stomatitis strains, AV1 and AV2, embody all of these traits. We uncover the mechanism by which these mutants are selectively(More)
The genetic basis for virulence in influenza virus is largely unknown. To explore the mutational basis for increased virulence in the lung, the H3N2 prototype clinical isolate, A/HK/1/68, was adapted to the mouse. Genomic sequencing provided the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that a group of 11 mutations can convert an avirulent virus to a virulent(More)
The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic(More)
As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the generation of pandemic virus through reassortment. Antigenic and genetic characterization was performed for five swine H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from diseased pigs from different farms. The haemagglutinin (HA)(More)
H9N2 influenza viruses have been circulating in China since 1994, but a systematic investigation of H9N2 in northern China has not been undertaken since 2004. Here, using the sequences of 22 viruses we isolated from poultry and pigs in northern China during 2003-2008, in combination with sequences available in a public database, we analyzed the evolution of(More)
  • E G Brown
  • Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine…
  • 2000
Significant progress has been made in understanding the process of influenza A virus replication in cell culture; however, much less is known about the genetic control of virus-host interactions in disease. This review provides an overview of the genetic analysis of influenza virus biology. The functional map of the individual genes of influenza A virus is(More)
Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined. We have established a murine model of heterologous infections by an H1N1 influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus. We found that indeed prior influenza infection markedly increased the susceptibility of(More)
Genetic analysis of mouse-adapted influenza virus variant A/FM/1/47 (FM) MA has previously identified four genome segments, 4, 5, 7, and 8, that are statistically associated with virulence. On sequencing these genome segments, we found single amino acid replacements at amino acid 47 of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin and at amino acid 139 of the matrix(More)
RATIONALE Studies have shown that cigarette smoke impacts respiratory host defense mechanisms; however, it is poorly understood how these smoke-induced changes impact the overall ability of the host to deal with pathogenic agents. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mainstream cigarette smoke exposure on immune(More)
The newly described heterotrophic estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida has been linked with fish kills in field and laboratory settings, and with a novel clinical syndrome of impaired cognition and memory disturbance among humans after presumptive toxin exposure. As a result, there is a pressing need to better characterize the organism and these(More)