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Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors is implicated in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Here, the effects of mechanical injury on the voltage-dependent magnesium (Mg2+) block of NMDA currents in cultured rat cortical neurons were examined. Stretch-induced injury was found to reduce the Mg2+ blockade,(More)
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, reproducible model for examining the morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical consequences of stretch-induced injury on tissue-cultured cells of brain origin. Rat cortical astrocytes from 1- to 2-day-old rats were cultured to confluency in commercially available 25-mm-diameter tissue culture wells with a(More)
Calcium influx and elevation of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), with subsequent activation of degradative enzymes, is hypothesized to cause cell injury and death after traumatic brain injury. We examined the effects of mild-to-severe stretch-induced traumatic injury on [Ca2+]i dynamics in cortical neurons cultured on silastic membranes. [Ca2+]i was(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is abundant evidence that after in vivo traumatic brain injury, oxygen radicals contribute to changes in cerebrovascular structure and function; however, the cellular source of these oxygen radicals is not clear. The purpose of these experiments was to use a newly developed in vitro tissue culture model to elucidate the effect(More)
Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Using an in vitro cell injury model, we examined the effects of stretch-induced traumatic injury on the AMPA subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in cultured neonatal cortical neurons. Recordings made using the whole-cell patch-clamp(More)
When increased prostaglandin synthesis was induced in anesthetized cats equipped with cranial windows by topical application of arachidonate (200 micrograms/ml) or bradykinin (20 micrograms/ml), there was reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium, resulting in deposition of the reduced insoluble form of this dye on the brain surface. The amount of reduced(More)
Acute severe hypertension induced by intravenous norepinephrine or angiotensin in anesthetized cats equipped with a cranial window caused prolonged arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia or hypocapnia and passive response to changes in arterial blood pressure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of(More)
Purified PGH synthase when acting on arachidonic acid in the presence of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide or reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide 3'-phosphate generated superoxide in burst-like fashion. In eight experiments using different batches of enzyme, the mean +/- SE rate of superoxide generation from 100 U of enzyme measured as the(More)
Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid ligand, binds to CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and mimics the neurobehavioural actions of marijuana. Cannabinoids and anandamide also elicit hypotension mediated by peripheral CB1 receptors. Here we report that a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, elicits an increase in blood pressure in rats(More)
We have recently shown that brain tissue can synthesize cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), including 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET), and 14,15-EET. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the vasoactivity of EETs and AA on the cerebral microcirculation. Pial arteriolar diameter was measured in rabbits and(More)