Earl F. Ellis

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The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, reproducible model for examining the morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical consequences of stretch-induced injury on tissue-cultured cells of brain origin. Rat cortical astrocytes from 1- to 2-day-old rats were cultured to confluency in commercially available 25-mm-diameter tissue culture wells with a(More)
Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors is implicated in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Here, the effects of mechanical injury on the voltage-dependent magnesium (Mg2+) block of NMDA currents in cultured rat cortical neurons were examined. Stretch-induced injury was found to reduce the Mg2+ blockade,(More)
Calcium influx and elevation of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), with subsequent activation of degradative enzymes, is hypothesized to cause cell injury and death after traumatic brain injury. We examined the effects of mild-to-severe stretch-induced traumatic injury on [Ca2+]i dynamics in cortical neurons cultured on silastic membranes. [Ca2+]i was(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AN) has been reported to produce pharmacological effects similar to those of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol but with a shorter duration of action. Also, AN is known to be metabolized to arachidonic acid. The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of distribution and metabolism of AN. Male mice were each(More)
Purified PGH synthase when acting on arachidonic acid in the presence of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide or reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide 3'-phosphate generated superoxide in burst-like fashion. In eight experiments using different batches of enzyme, the mean +/- SE rate of superoxide generation from 100 U of enzyme measured as the(More)
Gliosis is characterized by hypertrophic and hyperplastic responses of astrocytes to brain injury. To determine whether injury of astrocytes produced by an in vitro model of brain trauma activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a key regulator of cellular proliferation and differentiation, astrocytes cultured on deformable SILASTIC(More)
Energy deficit after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, biosynthesis, and cellular transport. Using an in vitro model for TBI, we tested the hypothesis that stretch-induced injury alters mitochondrial membrane potential (delta(psi)m) and ATP in astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, pure neuronal cultures, and mixed(More)
Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid ligand, binds to CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and mimics the neurobehavioural actions of marijuana. Cannabinoids and anandamide also elicit hypotension mediated by peripheral CB1 receptors. Here we report that a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, elicits an increase in blood pressure in rats(More)
To determine the possible role that endogenously produced prostaglandins may play in the regulation of cerebral blood flow, the responses of cerebral precapillary vessels to prostaglandins (PG) D2, E2, G2, and I2 (8.1 X 10(-8) to 2.7 X 10(-5) M) were studied in cats equipped with cranial windows for direct observation of the microvasculature. Local(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is abundant evidence that after in vivo traumatic brain injury, oxygen radicals contribute to changes in cerebrovascular structure and function; however, the cellular source of these oxygen radicals is not clear. The purpose of these experiments was to use a newly developed in vitro tissue culture model to elucidate the effect(More)