Learn More
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ability of an agonist to induce desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) depends upon the agonist used. Furthermore, previous data suggest that the intracellular mechanisms underlying desensitization may be agonist-specific. We investigated the mechanisms underlying MOR desensitization, in adult mammalian neurons, caused by(More)
In morphine tolerance a key question that remains to be answered is whether mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) desensitization contributes to morphine tolerance, and if so by what cellular mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that MOPr desensitization can be observed in single rat brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) neurons following either prolonged (> 4 h) exposure to(More)
The widely accepted model of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation describes a system where the agonist-activated receptors couple to G proteins to induce a cellular response, and are subsequently phosphorylated by a family of kinases called the G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The GRK-phosphorylated receptor then acts as a substrate for(More)
Recent studies have shown that morphine, in contrast to other agonists at the mu-opioid receptor, causes very little rapid mu-opioid receptor desensitization or internalization in adult rat mammalian neurons, raising important questions about how morphine tolerance is induced. Here we show that morphine can indeed cause marked rapid desensitization of(More)
Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) exhibit rapid desensitization and internalization during exposure to various opioid agonists. In some studies, however, morphine has been observed to produce little MOR desensitization or internalization. We examined desensitization in mature rat locus ceruleus (LC) neurons and confirmed that morphine is a very poor desensitizing(More)
The ability of two opioid agonists, [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine, to induce mu-opioid receptor (MOR) phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization was examined in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing rat MOR1 as well G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) channel subunits. Both(More)
We have compared the ability of a number of μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) ligands to activate G proteins with their abilities to induce MOPr phosphorylation, to promote association of arrestin-3 and to cause MOPr internalization. For a model of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation where all agonists stabilize a single active conformation of the receptor,(More)
Differences in the mechanisms underlying tolerance and mu-opioid receptor desensitization resulting from exposure to opioid agonists of different efficacy have been suggested previously. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) inhibition on antinociceptive tolerance in(More)
We have isolated and characterised a novel human protein kinase, Cdc2-related kinase with an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain (CrkRS), that is most closely related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family. CrkRS is a 1490 amino acid protein, the largest CDK-related kinase so far isolated. The protein kinase domain of CrkRS is 89% identical to the 46 kDa(More)
In this study we characterized the heterologous desensitization and internalization of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) splice variants mGluR1a and mGluR1b following activation of endogenous G(q/11)-coupled receptors in HEK293 cells. Agonist activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine or P2Y1 purinergic receptors triggered the PKC- and(More)