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The intracarotid injection method has been utilized to examine blood-brain barrier (BBB) glucose transport in hyperglycemic (4-6 days) mice. In anesthetized mice, Brain Uptake Indices were measured over a range of glucose concentrations from 0.010-50 mmol/l; glucose uptake was found to be saturable and kinetically characterized. The maximal velocity (Vmax)(More)
Blood-brain barrier penetration of leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin, and other peptide-like compounds was measured after intracarotid injection of three isotopes and was found to be non-saturable over the nanomolar range of concentrations tested. No significant differences in brain regional extraction of leucine enkephalin (or morphine or heroin)(More)
Mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase (laforin) cause Lafora disease (LD), a progressive and invariably fatal epilepsy with periodic acid-Schiff-positive (PAS+) cytoplasmic inclusions (Lafora bodies) in the central nervous system. To study the pathology of LD and the functions of laforin, we disrupted the Epm2a gene in mice. At(More)
Brain extraction of (18)F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was significantly higher in pentylene tetrazole (PTZ)-treated rats (32 +/- 4%) than controls (25 +/- 4%). The FDG permeability-surface area product (PS) was also significantly higher with PTZ treatment (0.36 +/- 0.05 ml. min(-1). g(-1)) than in controls (0.20 +/- 0.06 ml. min(-1). g(-1)).(More)
Immunogold electron microscopy was used to analyze and quantify the Glut1 glucose transporter in brain tissue from five patients undergoing surgery for treatment of seizures. Samples were prepared from two different regions of each resection: (1) the most actively spiking epileptogenic site, and (2) the least actively spiking region, as indicated by(More)
Iodide uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyrocytes is essential for thyroid hormone production. Reduced NIS activity has been reported in thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer and congenital hypothyroidism. The study of iodide uptake in thyrocytes has been limited by the availability of appropriate in vitro models. A new culture technique(More)
The objective of the present study was to examine the apparent work capacity of one of the two separate membrane systems (the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) that isolate the mammalian brain extracellular fluid (and cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) from plasma. Digitized analyses of electron-microscopic images provided estimates of mitochondrial volumes, which(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have previously shown that treatment with zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (CHP) significantly stimulated synthesis of the insulin degrading enzyme and lowered plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, alongside improving oral glucose tolerance in genetically type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (G-K) rats and in aged obese Sprague-Dawley (S-D)(More)
A concern for the possible role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the epilepsies was based on ultrastructural studies that demonstrated increased micropinocytosis in cerebral capillaries during seizures. Continued interest in the structure of the BBB has led to the demonstration that, in human psychomotor epilepsy, there is a thickening of the capillary(More)
The blood-brain barrier permeability to certain 14-C-labelled purine and pyrimidine compounds was studied by simultaneous injection in conjunction with two reference isotopes into the rat common carotid artery and decapitation 15s later. The amount of 14-C-labelled base or nucleoside remaining in brain was expressed in relation to 3-H2O (a highly diffusible(More)