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The Relationship of Depression and Stressors to Immunological Assays: A Meta-Analytic Review
A broad meta-analysis of the relations of both depression and stressors to immunological assays revealed that for both major depression and naturally occurring stressors the following effects are shared: leukocytosis, increased CD4/CD8 ratios, reduced proliferative response to mitogen, and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity. Expand
Physiology, pharmacology, and therapeutic relevance of urocortins in mammals: Ancient CRF paralogs
Urocortins, three paralogs of the stress-related peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) found in bony fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, have unique phylogenies, pharmacologies, and tissueExpand
Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute ethanol withdrawal and protracted abstinence: regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor.
Chronic ethanol exposure leads to increased ethanol self-administration and decreased open-arm exploration in the elevated plus maze during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence, which implicates CRF as an underlying mechanism regulating long-term motivational effects associated with alcohol dependence. Expand
Corticosteroid-Dependent Plasticity Mediates Compulsive Alcohol Drinking in Rats
The GR system appears to be involved in the development of alcohol dependence and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. Expand
Multiparous species present problems (and possibilities) to developmentalists.
  • E. Zorrilla
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Developmental psychobiology
  • 1 March 1997
Evidence is presented that litter effects are pervasive and persist into adulthood, and two-stage sampling, the practice of sampling only a subset of littermates from dams, can lower reliability, and therefore power, to unacceptable levels. Expand
Measuring meals: structure of prandial food and water intake of rats.
Log-survivorship analysis is not appropriate for identifying meal breakpoints, and the consideration of drinking in meal definitions can provide a better estimate of meal structure. Expand
Transgenic Mice with a Reduced Core Body Temperature Have an Increased Life Span
It is reported that transgenic mice engineered to overexpress the uncoupling protein 2 in hypocretin neurons (Hcrt-UCP2) have elevated hypothalamic temperature, and modest, sustained reduction of core body temperature prolonged life span independent of altered diet or CR. Expand
Changes in levels of regional CRF-like-immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone during protracted drug withdrawal in dependent rats
Protracted withdrawal from ethanol or cocaine is associated with altered limbic CRF-LI and circulating CORT levels beyond the detoxification stage, and the delayed nature of some changes suggests that they may not represent residual effects of acute withdrawal, but rather emerging manifestations of a separate process, such as allostatic load. Expand
Effects of antalarmin, a CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and motor activation in the rat
Findings indicate that the CRF(1) receptor mediates anxiogenic-like effects of novelty stress and the anxiogenesis-like and activating effects of CRF and support the hypothesis that CRF (1) antagonists may be useful for the pharmacotherapy of pathological anxiety. Expand
Neurobiological mechanisms of addiction: focus on corticotropin-releasing factor.
Validated animal models of the stress component of addiction and improved understanding of the neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in perturbations of this component suggest that corticotropin-releasing factor systems are a viable target for the development of future medications for drug addiction. Expand