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Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone.
Bone comprises a complex structure of primarily collagen, hydroxyapatite and water, where each hierarchical structural level contributes to its strength, ductility and toughness. These properties,Expand
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Natural flexible dermal armor.
Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fishExpand
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Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length scales
The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at near-millimeterExpand
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Structure and fracture resistance of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) armored fish scales.
The alligator gar is a large fish with flexible armor consisting of ganoid scales. These scales contain a thin layer of ganoine (microhardness ~2.5 GPa) and a bony body (microhardness ~400 MPa), withExpand
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Mixed-mode fracture of human cortical bone.
Although the mode I (tensile opening) fracture toughness has been the focus of most fracture mechanics studies of human cortical bone, bones in vivo are invariably loaded multiaxially. Consequently,Expand
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Mechanical adaptability of the Bouligand-type structure in natural dermal armour.
Arapaima gigas, a fresh water fish found in the Amazon Basin, resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armour. Arapaima scalesExpand
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Glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in mice can be reversed by the actions of parathyroid hormone and risedronate on different pathways for bone formation and mineralization.
OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid excess decreases bone mineralization and microarchitecture and leads to reduced bone strength. Both anabolic (parathyroid hormone [PTH]) and antiresorptive agents are used toExpand
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Vitamin D Deficiency Induces Early Signs of Aging in Human Bone, Increasing the Risk of Fracture
In addition to decreasing bone mass, vitamin D deficiency causes early aging of the remaining mineralized bone and leads to severe losses in fracture resistance. Vitamin D–Deficient Bone Showing ItsExpand
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Osteocytic canalicular networks: morphological implications for altered mechanosensitivity.
Osteocytes are ramified bone cells distributed throughout the bone matrix within a network of micrometer-scale cavities (lacunae) and numerous nanometer-thick tunnels (canaliculi). The integrity ofExpand
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Perspectives on the role of nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.
OBJECTIVE This review surveys new developments in bone tissue engineering, specifically focusing on the promising role of nanotechnology and describes future avenues of research. METHODS The reviewExpand
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