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Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography, and divergence time estimates for swallowtail butterflies of the genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).
TLDR
This divergence time suggests that Papilio has slower apparent substitution rates than do Drosophila and fig-pollinating wasps and/or divergences corrected using best-fit substitution models are still being consistently underestimated.
Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers
TLDR
This work presents the first well supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the butterflies and skippers based on a total-evidence analysis of both traditional morphological characters and new molecular characters from three gene regions (COI, EF-1α and wingless).
Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes.
TLDR
Based on molecular evidence, sister-group relationships were confirmed between the genera Hypermnestra and Parnassius, as well as between Archon and Luehdorfia, while the monophyly of the subfamily was weakly supported.
INDEPENDENT GENE PHYLOGENIES AND MORPHOLOGY DEMONSTRATE A MALAGASY ORIGIN FOR A WIDE‐RANGING GROUP OF SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES
TLDR
Dispersal‐vicariance analysis using cladograms derived from morphology and three independent genes indicated a Malagasy diversification of lime swallowtails in the middle Miocene, suggesting diversification processes on the island of Madagascar may have contributed to the origin of common butterflies that now occur throughout much of the Old World tropical and subtemperate regions.
Introgression as a likely cause of mtDNA paraphyly in two allopatric skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)
TLDR
A unique case of mitochondrial DNA paraphyly in the skipper genus, Erynnis, that involves well-diverged allopatric species is described and it is suggested that similar processes could be operating in other taxa that have not been extensively sampled.
Genetic differentiation across a latitudinal gradient in two co‐occurring butterfly species: revealing population differences in a context of climate change
TLDR
These findings suggest caution in assuming that populations are invariant across latitude and thus will respond as a single ecotype to climatic change, and find evidence for divergence of peripheral populations from the core in both taxa.
Molecular Phylogeny of Cryptocercus Wood-roaches Based on Mitochondrial COII and 16S Sequences, and Chromosome Numbers in Palearctic Representatives
TLDR
This study performed phylogenetic analyses of the COII gene in these species and found evidence for the topology (47(45(43(39,37), which is congruent with the serial reduction hypothesis) and determined chromosome numbers for the first time in Palearctic species, and determined the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercus primarius among other Asian taxa.
Characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Anise swallowtail, Papilio zelicaon (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), and their amplification in related species
TLDR
The results suggest that the microsatellites reported here may be appropriate for measuring population genetic structure in a number of Papilio species.
Four independent gene phylogenies confirm the ancient relationships of Madagascar endemic species in the Papilio demoleus group (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).
TLDR
Dolphin-vicariance analysis using cladograms derived from morphology and three independent genes indicated a Malagasy diversification of lime swallowtails in the middle Miocene, suggesting diversification processes on the island of Madagascar may have contributed to the origin of common butterflies that now occur throughout much of the Old World tropical and subtemperate regions.
Microsatellite loci in the Propertius duskywing, Erynnis propertius (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), and related species
TLDR
Fifteen polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci were characterized for Erynnis propertius using an enrichment protocol and 12 markers successfully amplified in related EryNNis species and eight lociwere polymorphic in at least one other species.
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