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Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.
The methods described include the standard plate test, the use and storage of the bacterial tester strains, preparation and use of the liver homogenates, and the methods of inducing the rats for elevated microsomal enzyme activity. Expand
Carcinogens are mutagens: a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection.
It is proposed that a ring system sufficiently planar for a stacking interaction with DNA base pairs and a part of the molecule capable of being metabolized to a reactive group are discussed in terms of the theory of frameshift mutagenesis. Expand
Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: assay of 300 chemicals.
There is a high correlation between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity: 90% (156/174) of carcinogens are mutagenic in the test and despite the severe limitations inherent in defining non-carcinogenicity, few "non-Carcinogens" show any degree of mutageniability. Expand
A new Salmonella tester strain, TA97, for the detection of frameshift mutagens. A run of cytosines as a mutational hot-spot.
A new Salmonella tester strain, TA97, is developed, which contains an added cytosine, resulting in a run of six cytosines at the mutated site in the histidine D gene, and it is suggested that TA1537 be replaced by TA97 for general screening of mutagenicity. Expand
Concentration of mutagens from urine by absorption with the nonpolar resin XAD-2: cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine.
  • E. Yamasaki, B. Ames
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1 August 1977
It is shown that cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine while nonsmokers do not and this method is proposed to be used in monitoring the urine of human populations and of experimental animals in toxicological studies. Expand
Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.
It is shown here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test, a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. Expand
Detection of mutagenic activity in cigarette smoke condensates.
A rat lung microsomal preparation was also found to be capable of converting smoke condensates and known chemical carcinogens into mutagenic forms. Expand
Topoisomerase II Poisoning by ICRF-193*
It is reported that ICRF-193 is a very significant topoisomerase II poison and common use of only the detergent, SDS, in assays may have led to failure to detect topoisomersase II poisoning by ICRFs in earlier studies. Expand
XK469, a selective topoisomerase IIbeta poison.
It is reported here that XK469 and its S(-) and R(+)-isomers induce reversible protein-DNA crosslinks in mammalian cells, and several lines of evidence indicate that the primary target ofXK469 is topoisomerase IIbeta. Expand