• Publications
  • Influence
Birds and Army Ants
Populations and Local Extinctions of Birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama
  • E. Willis
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1 February 1974
TLDR
A 1960—71 study of populations of color—banded ant—following antbirds of three species on a tropical—forested lowland reserve, Barro Colorado Island, showed that the small species remained stable at about 20 pairs/km2, but the medium and large species declined, with no clear reasons for declines.
The behavior of ocellated antbirds
TLDR
A ten-year study of color-banded Ocellated Antbirds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, showed that they persistently follow army ants for arthropods flushed by the ants, showing dominance over smaller antbirds and an unusually wide spectrum of submissive calls and postures.
Birds of a habitat spectrum in the Itirapina Savanna, São Paulo, Brazil (1982-2003).
  • E. Willis
  • Environmental Science
    Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira…
  • 1 November 2004
TLDR
Some 231 birds were recorded on a sandy plateau in central Sao Paulo, in an area forming a natural "habitat spectrum", from dry or wet grasslands to bushy ones (campo-cerrado) plus gallery scrub, marshes, and low woods, which includes several rare birds.
Birds of a eucalyptus woodlot in interior São Paulo.
  • E. Willis
  • Environmental Science
    Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira…
  • 1 February 2003
Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is
Diversity in adversity: the behaviors of two subordinate antbirds
  • E. Willis
  • Environmental Science
  • 30 January 1981
TLDR
Both White-plumeds and Fire-Eyes, like the subordinate antbirds previously studied, have little intraspecific submissive behavior and are relatively "r-seiected" for high reproductive rates.
Protected cerrado fragments grow up and lose even metapopulational birds in central São Paulo, Brazil.
  • E. Willis
  • Environmental Science
    Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira…
  • 1 August 2006
Moderately dense woodland (cerradão) grew in two isolated patches of bushy savanna (cerrado) in central São Paulo over 23 years of bird censuses. Various uncommon birds were lost and some forest
Interspecific Competition and the Foraging Behavior of Plain-Brown Woodcreepers
TLDR
When Plain—brown Woodcreepers follow swarms of army ants on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone, they forage in the zone near the ground more frequently when Ocellated Antthrushes are absent, a clear example of competitive exclusion by dominance.
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