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Redefinition of the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole: a proposed approach to implementing CIPM recommendation 1 (CI-2005)
The International System of Units (SI) is founded on seven base units, the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela corresponding to the seven base quantities of length, mass, time,
New Experimental Test of Coulomb's Law: A Laboratory Upper Limit on the Photon Rest Mass
A high-frequency test of Coulomb's law is described. The sensitivity of the experiment is given in terms of a finite photon rest mass using the Proca equations. The null result of our measurement
Towards an electronic kilogram: an improved measurement of the Planck constant and electron mass
The electronic kilogram project of NIST has improved the watt balance method to obtain a new determination of the Planck constant h by measuring the ratio of the SI unit of power W to the electrical
Uncertainty Improvements of the NIST Electronic Kilogram
Of the eight largest Type B uncertainty contributions, gravity acceleration, wheel surface, and reference mass magnetic susceptibility are considerably reduced and Humidity dependence in the recent data and limitations on the volt/velocity signal analysis are now the main limitations onThe uncertainty.
Details of the 1998 Watt Balance Experiment Determining the Planck Constant
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance experiment completed a determination of Planck constant in 1998 with a relative standard uncertainty of 87 × 10−9 (k = 1),
A new low-field determination of the proton gyromagnetic ratio in water
The proton gyromagnetic ratio in water has been measured by the low field method using atomic magnetic resonance in /sup 4/He, a multicurrent solenoid and an induction method for the dimensional
The asymptotic behavior of a random walk on a dual-medium lattice
This paper considers the asymptotic distribution for the horizontal displacement of a random walk in a medium represented by a two-dimensional lattice, whose transitions are to nearest-neighbor
Redefinition of the kilogram: a decision whose time has come
The kilogram, the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), is defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram. Clearly, this definition has the effect of fixing
Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century
The objective of the proposed changes is to adopt definitions referenced to constants of nature, taken in the widest sense, so that the definitions may be based on what are believed to be true invariants.
Direct observation of macroscopic charge quantization
The circuit formed by a nanoscale tunnel junction in series with a capacitance and a voltage source is the building block of most multi-junction circuits of single electronics. The state of this