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Effects of lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement
Lesions of the OPFC can promote preference for the smaller and more immediate, and the larger and more certain of two reinforcers, and are consistent with two interpretations: the lesion may have altered the rates of delay and odds discounting, and/or sensitivity to the ratio of the sizes of the two rein forcers.
Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part I: Principles of Functional Organisation
The locus coeruleus is the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, giving rise to fibres innervating extensive areas throughout the neuraxis, resulting in complex patterns of neuronal activity throughout the brain.
Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system
  • E. Szabadi
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 12 June 2013
The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neur one, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent.
Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological
In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and theAdministration of sedative drugs, including α 2-adRenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduceLC activity and result in sedation andactivation of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Theory and method in the quantitative analysis of ”impulsive choice” behaviour: implications for psychopharmacology
The model gives rise to a quantitative methodology for studying impulsive choice, based on a family of linear indifference (null) equations, which describe performance under conditions of indifference, when the values of the reinforcers are assumed to be equal.
Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people.
The reductions in light reflex amplitude and constriction velocity in the elderly group at first sight would indicate a parasympathetic deficit in old age, but they are more likely to be secondary to the grossly diminished pupil size.
Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
The results indicate that lesions of the OPFC can alter inter-temporal choice, either promoting or suppressing "impulsive choice", depending upon the relative sizes and delays of the two choice alternatives.
Effects of central 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement
These results provide additional evidence that central 5- HTergic mechanisms are involved in time discounting, but provide no evidence for a similar role of 5-HT in rats' sensitivity to probabilistic reinforcement.