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TLR4 enhances TGF-beta signaling and hepatic fibrosis.
Hepatic injury is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and increased hepatic exposure to bacterial products. Here we report that the intestinal bacterial microflora and a functionalExpand
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  • Open Access
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered theExpand
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Toll‐like receptors and adaptor molecules in liver disease: Update
Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen‐associated molecular patterns and signal through adaptor molecules, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88),Expand
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Toll-like receptor signaling in the liver.
TLR-mediated innate immune responses are indispensable for the host defense against microbial infection. Through its anatomical links with the intestine the liver is the main target of gut-derivedExpand
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  • Open Access
SOCS-1 participates in negative regulation of LPS responses.
SOCS-1 is a negative regulatory molecule of the JAK-STAT signal cascade. Here, we demonstrate that SOCS-1 is a critical downregulating factor for LPS signal pathways. SOCS-1 expression was promptlyExpand
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TLR4 enhances TGF-β signaling and hepatic fibrosis
Hepatic injury is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and increased hepatic exposure to bacterial products. Here we report that the intestinal bacterial microflora and a functionalExpand
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  • Open Access
A liver full of JNK: signaling in regulation of cell function and disease pathogenesis, and clinical approaches.
c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase family member that is activated by diverse stimuli, including cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1), reactiveExpand
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Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis: Functional links and key pathways
Inflammation is one of the most characteristic features of chronic liver disease of viral, alcoholic, fatty, and autoimmune origin. Inflammation is typically present in all disease stages andExpand
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Toll-like receptor 9 promotes steatohepatitis by induction of interleukin-1beta in mice.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) involves the innate immune system and is mediated by Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)Expand
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CCR1 and CCR5 promote hepatic fibrosis in mice.
Hepatic fibrosis develops as a response to chronic liver injury and almost exclusively occurs in a proinflammatory environment. However, the role of inflammatory mediators in fibrogenic responses ofExpand
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  • Open Access