• Publications
  • Influence
Music Lessons Enhance IQ
The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of aExpand
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Long-Term Positive Associations between Music Lessons and IQ.
In Study 1 (N 147), duration of music lessons was correlated positively with IQ and with academic ability among 6- to 11-year-olds, even when potential confounding variables (i.e., family income,Expand
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Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from suchExpand
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Simplifying the Implication-Realization Model of Melodic Expectancy
Results from previous investigations indicate that the implication-realization (I-R) model (Narmour, 1990) of expectancy in melody may be overspecified and more complex than necessary. Indeed,Expand
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Examining the association between music lessons and intelligence.
  • E. Schellenberg
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • British journal of psychology
  • 1 August 2011
Although links between music training and cognitive abilities are relatively well-established, unresolved issues include the generality of the association, the direction of causation, and whether theExpand
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Music and Cognitive Abilities
Does music make you smarter? Music listening and music lessons have been claimed to confer intellectual advantages. Any association between music and intellectual functioning would be notable only ifExpand
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Arousal, Mood, and The Mozart Effect
The “Mozart effect” refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence ofExpand
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Effects of Musical Tempo and Mode on Arousal, Mood, and Spatial Abilities
We examined effects of tempo and mode on spatial ability, arousal, and mood. A Mozart sonata was performed by a skilled pianist and recorded as a MIDI file. The file was edited to produce fourExpand
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The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference
The “Mozart effect” reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995) indicates that spatial-temporal abilities are enhanced after listening to music composed by Mozart. We replicated and extended theExpand
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Expectancy in melody: tests of the implication-realization model
The implication-realization model's description of tone-to-tone expectancies for continuations of melodies was examined. The model's predictions for expectancies are described with a small number ofExpand
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