• Publications
  • Influence
Music Lessons Enhance IQ
The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media, and the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children to two different types of music lessons or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons is tested. Expand
Long-Term Positive Associations between Music Lessons and IQ.
In Study 1 (N 147), duration of music lessons was correlated positively with IQ and with academic ability among 6- to 11-year-olds, even when potential confounding variables (i.e., family income,Expand
Simplifying the Implication-Realization Model of Melodic Expectancy
Results from previous investigations indicate that the implication-realization (I-R) model (Narmour, 1990) of expectancy in melody may be overspecified and more complex than necessary. Indeed,Expand
Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function
The effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood. Expand
Examining the association between music lessons and intelligence.
  • E. Schellenberg
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • British journal of psychology
  • 1 August 2011
The findings suggest that children with higher IQs are more likely than their lower-IQ counterparts to take music lessons, and to perform well on a variety of tests of cognitive ability except for those measuring executive function. Expand
Effects of Musical Tempo and Mode on Arousal, Mood, and Spatial Abilities
We examined effects of tempo and mode on spatial ability, arousal, and mood. A Mozart sonata was performed by a skilled pianist and recorded as a MIDI file. The file was edited to produce fourExpand
Music and Cognitive Abilities
Does music make you smarter? Music listening and music lessons have been claimed to confer intellectual advantages. Any association between music and intellectual functioning would be notable only ifExpand
Arousal, Mood, and The Mozart Effect
Findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood. Expand
The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference
The “Mozart effect” reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995) indicates that spatial-temporal abilities are enhanced after listening to music composed by Mozart. We replicated and extended theExpand
Expectancy in melody: tests of the implication-realization model
Findings indicate that the implication-realization model is over-specified, but the consistency that was found across experimental tasks, musical styles, and listeners raises the possibility that the revised version of the model may withstand the original model's claims of universality. Expand