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Toward a Defined Anti-Leishmania Vaccine Targeting Vector Antigens
Results indicate that DTH response against saliva provides most or all of the protective effects of this vaccine and that salivary gland proteins or their cDNAs are viable vaccine targets against leishmaniasis.
Development of a Natural Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Powerful Effects of  Vector Saliva and Saliva Preexposure on the Long-Term Outcome of Leishmania major Infection in the Mouse Ear Dermis
The studies reveal a dramatic exacerbating effect of SGS on lesion development in the dermal site, and a complete abrogation of this effect in mice preexposed to salivary components, the first to suggest that for individuals at risk of vector-borne infections, history of exposure to vector saliva might influence the outcome of Exposure to transmitted parasites.
Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, United States and Canada, 2000–2003
Foxhounds infected with Leishmania spp. were found in 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces.
Toward an understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological complexity of the saliva of a hematophagous sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.
Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and observed that thesalivary apyrase activity is indeed similar to that of Cimex apyr enzyme in its metal requirements.
The salivary adenosine deaminase from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.
The activity of the adenosine deaminase family enzyme was significantly reduced following a blood meal indicating its apparent secretory fate in the feeding physiology of the sand fly L. longipalpis.
Speciation and population structure in the morphospecies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) as derived from the mitochondrial ND4 gene.
F(ST) values comparing a Guatemalan population with several Honduran populations revealed a level of differentiation associated with a negligible rate of gene flow, and deep genetic divisions between four clades represented by specimens from northern South America, Brazil, Central America, and an isolated Colombian population were revealed.
Evidence that the vectorial competence of phlebotomine sand flies for different species of Leishmania is controlled by structural polymorphisms in the surface lipophosphoglycan.
The data suggest that at least some phlebotomine vectors differ with respect to the parasite recognition sites which they express and that midgut adhesion is a sufficiently critical component of vectorial competence as to provide the evolutionary drive for LPG structural polymorphisms.
The salivary apyrase of the blood-sucking sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi belongs to the novel Cimex family of apyrases.
Transfection of insect cells with the P. papatasi salivary gland apyrase cDNA resulted in the secretion of a Ca(2+)-dependent apyr enzyme whose activity was indistinguishable from that in Salivary homogenates of P. Papatasi.
Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides promote protective immunity and provide systemic therapy for leishmaniasis via IL-12- and IFN-gamma-dependent mechanisms.
It is concluded that immunostimulatory DNA sequences likely exert systemic effects via IL-12 and IFN-gamma-dependent mechanisms and hold considerable promise as both vaccine adjuvants and potential therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of leishmaniasis.
Human immune response to sand fly salivary gland antigens: a useful epidemiological marker?
A positive correlation was found between anti-Leishmania IgG and anti-recombinant protein IgG titers and may be of relevance to the study the epidemiology of leishmaniasis.