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Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatoryExpand
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Immunomodulatory functions of type I interferons
Interferon-α (IFNα) and IFNβ, collectively known as type I IFNs, are the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viral infections. However, the production of type I IFNs is alsoExpand
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Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells
The mechanisms by which commensal bacteria suppress inflammatory signalling in the gut are still unclear. Here, we present a cellular mechanism whereby the polarity of intestinal epithelial cellsExpand
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Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis.
BACKGROUND & AIMS We tested whether the attenuation of experimental colitis by live probiotic bacteria is due to their immunostimulatory DNA, whether toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required,Expand
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Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis.
Experimental colitis is mediated by inflammatory or dysregulated immune responses to microbial factors of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study we observed that administration of Toll-likeExpand
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Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Necessary for Effective Intradermal Gene Immunization
Vaccination with naked DNA elicits cellular and humoral immune responses that have a T helper cell type 1 bias. However, plasmid vectors expressing large amounts of gene product do not necessarilyExpand
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Immunostimulatory DNA sequences function as T helper-1-promoting adjuvants
An adjuvant role for certain short bacterial immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISSs) has recently been proposed on the basis of their ability to stimulate T helper-1 (Thl) responses in gene-vaccinatedExpand
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Molecular basis for the immunostimulatory activity of guanine nucleoside analogs: Activation of Toll-like receptor 7
Certain C8-substituted and N7, C8-disubstituted guanine ribonucleosides comprise a class of small molecules with immunostimulatory activity. In a variety of animal models, these agents stimulate bothExpand
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A gp130–Src–YAP module links inflammation to epithelial regeneration
Inflammation promotes regeneration of injured tissues through poorly understood mechanisms, some of which involve interleukin (IL)-6 family members, the expression of which is elevated in manyExpand
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Inhibition of experimental asthma by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
Epidemiological evidence points to the inverse relationship between microbial exposure and the prevalence of allergic asthma and autoimmune diseases in Westernized countries. The molecular basis forExpand
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