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Inflamm‐aging: An Evolutionary Perspective on Immunosenescence
The beneficial effects of inflammation devoted to the neutralization of dangerous/harmful agents early in life and in adulthood become detrimental late in life in a period largely not foreseen by evolution, according to the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.
Cytotoxicity and cytotoxic molecules in invertebrates
Invertebrates possess effective general innate immune mechanisms which exhibit striking parallels with those of vertebrates, and the signal transduction pathways that are involved in mediating the production of these substances appear to be very similar among animal species, suggesting a common ancestral origin for the innate immune systems.
Inflamm-aging, cytokines and aging: state of the art, new hypotheses on the role of mitochondria and new perspectives from systems biology.
Genetic data regarding polymorphisms of genes encoding for cytokines and proteins involved in natural immunity obtained from large population studies including young, old and very old people in good health status or affected by age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease and Type II Diabetes are reviewed.
Invertebrate humoral factors: cytokines as mediators of cell survival.
The studies on the function of the invertebrate humoral factors show a close overlapping with those found in vertebrates, and the hypothesized missing correlation between invertebrates and vertebrate cytokine genes might represent a very peculiar strategy followed by Nature in the evolution of cytokines.