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Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration
Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of a 24-kDa Ca2+-binding Protein Activating Photoreceptor Guanylyl Cyclase (*)
It is demonstrated that p24, like GCAP, imparts Ca2+ sensitivity to photoreceptor membrane guanylyl cyclase in vitro at submicromolar concentrations and be referred to as GCAP-1.
Dimerization of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein and a Mechanism of Photoreceptor Guanylyl Cyclase Activation*
- E. Olshevskaya, A. Ermilov, A. Dizhoor
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 3 September 1999
The results suggest that dimerization of GCAP-2 can be a part of the mechanism by which GC AP-2 regulates the photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase.
The human photoreceptor membrane guanylyl cyclase, RetGC, is present in outer segments and is regulated by calcium and a soluble activator
Constitutive Activation of Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase by Y99C Mutant of GCAP-1
It is found that the Y99C GCAP-1 can activate RetGC even in the presence of Ca2+-loaded nonmutant GCAPs, consistent with the fact that cone degeneration was dominant in human patients who carried such mutation.
Calcium Binding, but Not a Calcium-Myristoyl Switch, Controls the Ability of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein GCAP-2 to Regulate Photoreceptor Guanylyl Cyclase*
- E. Olshevskaya, R. E. Hughes, J. Hurley, A. Dizhoor
- BiologyThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 30 May 1997
It is found that compartmentalization of GCAP-2 in photoreceptor outer segment membranes is Ca2+- and ionic strength-sensitive, but it does not require the presence of the fatty acyl group and does not necessarily directly reflect GC AP-2 interaction with RetGC.
Enzymatic properties and regulation of the native isozymes of retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) from mouse photoreceptors.
At the maximal level of activation by GCAP, this isozyme alone could provide a significantly high rate of cGMP synthesis compared to what is expected for normal recovery of a mouse rod, and this can help explain some of the unresolved paradoxes of rod physiology.
Night Blindness and the Mechanism of Constitutive Signaling of Mutant G90D Rhodopsin
The experiments provide the first indication that a mutant form of the rhodopsin molecule bound to its 11-cis-chromophore can stimulate the visual cascade spontaneously at a rate large enough to produce visual dysfunction.
Factors that affect regulation of cGMP synthesis in vertebrate photoreceptors and their genetic link to human retinal degeneration
Two isozymes of membrane photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase (retGC) have been identified in rods and cones that are regulated by Ca2+-binding proteins, GCAPs, but concentrations above 500 nM typical for dark-adapted photoreceptors turn them into inhibitors of retGC.
The Y99C Mutation in Guanylyl Cyclase-Activating Protein 1 Increases Intracellular Ca2+ and Causes Photoreceptor Degeneration in Transgenic Mice
These results provide the first direct evidence that a mutation linked to congenital blindness increases Ca2+ in the outer segment, which may trigger the apoptotic process.