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Auditory feedback is necessary for the maintenance of stereotyped song in adult zebra finches.
Although songbirds rely on auditory input for normal song development, many species eventually attain adult song patterns that are thought to be maintained without reference to auditory feedback. InExpand
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Selective impairment of song learning following lesions of a forebrain nucleus in the juvenile zebra finch.
Area X, a large sexually dimorphic nucleus in the avian ventral forebrain, is part of a highly discrete system of interconnected nuclei that have been implicated in either song learning or adult songExpand
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Sex and regional differences in the incorporation of neurons born during song learning in zebra finches
  • E. Nordeen, K. Nordeen
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official…
  • 1 August 1988
In zebra finches only males sing, and several nuclei controlling song contain more neurons in adult males than in females. The ontogeny of sex differences in neuron number differs across song regionsExpand
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Neuron loss and addition in developing zebra finch song nuclei are independent of auditory experience during song learning.
In zebra finches early auditory experience is critical for normal song development. Young males first listen to and memorize a suitable song model and then use auditory feedback from their ownExpand
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Blockade of NMDA Receptors in the Anterior Forebrain Impairs Sensory Acquisition in the Zebra Finch (Poephila guttata)
Juvenile zebra finches (Poephila guttata) learn song in two stages: during sensory acquisition, they memorize the song of an adult tutor, and during sensorimotor learning, they alter theirExpand
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Androgens prevent normally occurring cell death in a sexually dimorphic spinal nucleus.
The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) contains many more motoneurons in adult male rats than in females. Androgens establish this sex difference during a critical perinatal period, whichExpand
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Projection neurons within a vocal motor pathway are born during song learning in zebra finches
Many birds learn song during a restricted 'sensitive' period1. Juveniles memorize a song model, and then learn the pattern of muscle contractions necessary to reproduce the song. Of the neuralExpand
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Individual variation in neuron number predicts differences in the propensity for avian vocal imitation.
Avian song learning involves memorizing and reproducing song material produced by conspecifics. In several species song repertoire size correlates with the overall volume of two song-related brainExpand
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Ontogeny of sex differences among newly-generated neurons of the juvenile avian brain.
In zebra finches, only males sing and brain regions controlling song exhibit sex differences in neuron number that stem from actions of estrogen during a critical developmental period. In certainExpand
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The relationship between rates of HVc neuron addition and vocal plasticity in adult songbirds.
In adulthood, songbird species vary considerably in the extent to which they rely on auditory feedback to maintain a stable song structure. The continued recruitment of new neurons into vocal motorExpand
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