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The Distribution and Mechanism of Action of Ghrelin in the CNS Demonstrates a Novel Hypothalamic Circuit Regulating Energy Homeostasis
The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite in rodents and humans via hypothalamic actions. We discovered expression of ghrelin in a previously uncharacterized group of neuronsExpand
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Diet-induced obesity causes severe but reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neurons.
Despite high leptin levels, most obese humans and rodents lack responsiveness to its appetite-suppressing effects. We demonstrate that leptin modulates NPY/AgRP and alpha-MSH secretion from the ARHExpand
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Role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in regulation of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene expression by leptin.
Leptin acts on the brain to regulate body weight and neuroendocrine function. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are important targets of leptin. These cells express the leptinExpand
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Transcriptional regulation of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene by leptin and melanocortin signaling.
Starvation causes a rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels in rodents. This adaptive response is caused by a reduction in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression that can be reversed by theExpand
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Hypothalamic Sirt1 Regulates Food Intake in a Rodent Model System
Sirt1 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD+ dependent deacetylase involved in a wide range of processes including cellular differentiation, apoptosis, as well as metabolism, and aging. In this study,Expand
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Role of the central melanocortin circuitry in adaptive thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue.
The central melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, although little is known regarding its role in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis of brown adipose tissueExpand
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The biology of pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone-derived peptides.
I. Introduction II. Biosynthesis of TRH and Other pro-TRH-Derived Peptides A. Biosynthesis and processing of pro-TRH B. Intracellular sites of pro-TRH processing C. Tissue-specific processing ofExpand
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SIRT1 deacetylase in POMC neurons is required for homeostatic defenses against diet-induced obesity.
Feeding on high-calorie (HC) diets induces serious metabolic imbalances, including obesity. Understanding the mechanisms against excessive body weight gain is critical for developing effectiveExpand
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Leptin Regulates Prothyrotropin-releasing Hormone Biosynthesis
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is down-regulated during starvation, and falling levels of leptin are a critical signal for this adaptation, acting to suppress preprothyrotropin-releasingExpand
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Regulation of hypothalamic prohormone convertases 1 and 2 and effects on processing of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone.
Regulation of energy balance by leptin involves regulation of several neuropeptides, including thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Synthesized from a larger inactive precursor, its maturationExpand
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