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Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic pain
Glia have emerged as key contributors to pathological and chronic pain mechanisms. On activation, both astrocytes and microglia respond to and release a number of signalling molecules, which haveExpand
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Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) distribution in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia under basal and neuropathic pain conditions
Fractalkine is a unique chemokine reported to be constitutively expressed by neurons. Its only receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia. Little is known about the expression of fractalkine andExpand
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Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
Pain is classically viewed as being mediated solely by neurons, as are other sensory phenomena. The discovery that spinal cord glia (microglia and astrocytes) amplify pain requires a change in thisExpand
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Spinal Glia and Proinflammatory Cytokines Mediate Mirror-Image Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Mirror-image allodynia is a mysterious phenomenon that occurs in association with many clinical pain syndromes. Allodynia refers to pain in response to light touch/pressure stimuli, which normallyExpand
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A Role for Proinflammatory Cytokines and Fractalkine in Analgesia, Tolerance, and Subsequent Pain Facilitation Induced by Chronic Intrathecal Morphine
The present experiments examined the role of spinal proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1β (IL-1)] and chemokines (fractalkine) in acute analgesia and in the development of analgesic tolerance,Expand
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Minocycline attenuates mechanical allodynia and proinflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of pain facilitation
Activated glial cells (microglia and astroglia) in the spinal cord play a major role in mediating enhanced pain states by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and other substances thought toExpand
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Evidence that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine can induce spinal nociceptive facilitation in rats
Recent evidence suggests that spinal cord glia can contribute to enhanced nociceptive responses. However, the signals that cause glial activation are unknown. Fractalkine (CX3C ligand‐1; CX3CL1) is aExpand
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Intrathecal HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 Induces Enhanced Pain States Mediated by Spinal Cord Proinflammatory Cytokines
Perispinal (intrathecal) injection of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 creates exaggerated pain states. Decreases in response thresholds to both heat stimuliExpand
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Chemokine Action in the Nervous System
Inflammatory cytokines are a family of molecules that coordinate inflammatory and immune responses. One important class of inflammatory cytokines are the chemokines (forCHEMOtactic cytoKINES).Expand
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“Listening” and “talking” to neurons: Implications of immune activation for pain control and increasing the efficacy of opioids
It is recently become clear that activated immune cells and immune-like glial cells can dramatically alter neuronal function. By increasing neuronal excitability, these non-neuronal cells are nowExpand
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