Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The results show that referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a pattern of demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and cognitive features that mirrors well-documented findings among children with the disorder.
Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: impact of remission definition and symptom type.
These results indicate that differences in reported remission rates reflect the definition used rather than the disorder's course, and provide systematic support for the clinical observation that hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms tend to decline at a higher rate than inattention symptoms.
The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies
The results show that estimates of ADHD's persistence rely heavily on how one defines persistence, yet, regardless of definition, the analyses show that evidence for ADHD lessens with age.
Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic.
Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, more likely to have a learning disability, and less likely to manifest problems in school or in their spare time, and a statistically significant gender-by-ADHD interaction was identified for comorbid substance use disorders.
Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
- S. Faraone, A. Doyle, E. Mick, J. Biederman
- Psychology, BiologyAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
- 1 July 2001
Although the association between ADHD and DRD4 is small, these results suggest that it is real and further studies are needed to clarify what variant ofDRD4 accounts for this association.
Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study
By their young adult years, ADHD youth were at high risk for a wide range of adverse psychiatric outcomes including markedly elevated rates of antisocial, addictive, mood and anxiety disorders.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology.
In this report, we provide an evidence-based overview of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including diagnosis, prevalence, developmental expression of symptoms, persistence, the…
Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community.
- J. Biederman, S. Faraone, T. Spencer, E. Mick, M. Monuteaux, M. Aleardi
- Medicine, PsychologyJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
- 15 April 2006
Adults who reported having received a diagnosis of ADHD in the community had significant impairment in multiple domains of functioning compared with age- and gender-matched controls without this diagnosis, highly consistent with findings derived from carefully diagnosed referred samples.
Family-environment risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A test of Rutter's indicators of adversity.
A positive association appears to exist between adversity indicators and the risk for ADHD as well as for its associated psychiatric, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments.