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Astrocytes are active players in cerebral innate immunity.
IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases
The increased immunity found in mice lacking IL-35 production by B cells was associated with a higher activation of macrophages and inflammatory T cells, as well as an increased function of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors
A new family of viral inhibitors (v-FLIPs) which interfere with apoptosis signalled through death receptors3 and which are present in several γ-herpesviruses (including Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus-8), as well as in the tumorigenic human molluscipoxvirus4.
MicroRNA profiling of multiple sclerosis lesions identifies modulators of the regulatory protein CD47.
It is suggested that microRNA dysregulated in multiple sclerosis lesions reduce CD47 in brain resident cells, releasing macrophages from inhibitory control, thereby promoting phagocytosis of myelin and have broad implications for microRNA-regulated macrophage activation in inflammatory diseases.
Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment.
The strong linkage of CXCL13 to immune cells and immunoglobulin levels in CSF suggests that this is one of the factors that attract and maintain B and T cells in inflamed CNS lesions.
Neurofascin as a novel target for autoantibody-mediated axonal injury
A novel mechanism of immune-mediated axonal injury that can contribute to axonal pathology in MS is identified and identified through a proteomics-based approach.
Impairment of mycobacterial immunity in human interleukin-12 receptor deficiency.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) receptor deficiency was found in otherwise healthy individuals with mycobacterial infections, and mature granulomas were seen, surrounded by T cells and centered with epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells, yet reduced IFN-gamma concentrations were found to be secreted by activated natural killer and T cells.
Preferential expression and function of Toll-like receptor 3 in human astrocytes
Latent herpesvirus infection in human trigeminal ganglia causes chronic immune response.
B lineage cells in the inflammatory central nervous system environment: Migration, maintenance, local antibody production, and therapeutic modulation
These new findings offer a plausible explanation for the notorious persistence and stability of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands and outline the possibly double‐edged effects of B cells and immunoglobulin in the CNS.