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Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden
SummaryThis report describes the epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).IntroductionOsteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone massExpand
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FRAX™ and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK
SummaryA fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) is developed based on the use of clinical risk factors with or without bone mineral density tests applied to the UK.IntroductionThe aim of this studyExpand
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Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: A meta-analysis
Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-documented risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this effect and to explore the association of BMI with fracture risk in relationExpand
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European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
Summary Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. Introduction The International OsteoporosisExpand
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Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wideExpand
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FRAX and its applications to clinical practice.
The introduction of the WHO FRAX algorithms has facilitated the assessment of fracture risk on the basis of fracture probability. FRAX integrates the influence of several well validated risk factorsExpand
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A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide
SummaryThe country-specific risk of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture were determined on a worldwide basis from a systematic review of literature. There was aExpand
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A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis.
In 1994, the World Health Organization published diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis. Since then, many new technologies have been developed for the measurement of bone mineral at multiple skeletalExpand
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Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis
Smoking is widely considered a risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sexExpand
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Osteoporosis: burden, health care provision and opportunities in the EU
Osteoporosis, literally "porous bone", is a disease characterized by weak bone. It is a major public health problem, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, predominantly postmenopausalExpand
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