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A brain serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Cdc42 and Rac1
- E. Manser, T. Leung, Harfizah Salihuddin, Zhuo-shen Zhao, L. Lim
- Biology, ChemistryNature
- 6 January 1994
A new brain serine/threonine protein kinase may be a target for the p21 ras -related proteins Cdc42 and Rac1, and provides a model for studying p21 regulation of mammalian phosphorylation signalling pathways.
PAK kinases are directly coupled to the PIX family of nucleotide exchange factors.
The p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROK alpha is a member of a kinase family and is involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton
The multidomained ROK alpha appears to be involved in reorganization of the cytoskeleton, with the N and C termini acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of the kinase domain whose activity is crucial for formation of stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes.
Ste20-like protein kinases are required for normal localization of cell growth and for cytokinesis in budding yeast.
- F. Cvrčková, C. De Virgilio, E. Manser, J. Pringle, K. Nasmyth
- BiologyGenes & development
- 1 August 1995
A novel yeast STE20 homolog, CLA4, was identified in a screen for mutations lethal in the absence of the G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2, and apparently share a function in localizing cell growth with respect to the septin ring.
Expression of constitutively active alpha-PAK reveals effects of the kinase on actin and focal complexes
Transfection shows that in epithelial HeLa cells alpha-PAK is recruited from the cytoplasm to distinct focal complexes by both Cdc42(G 12V) and Rac1(G12V), which themselves colocalize to these sites, which support previous suggestions of a role for PAK downstream of both CDC42 and Rac 1 and indicate that PAK functions include the dissolution of stress fibers and reorganization of focal complexes.
A Conserved Negative Regulatory Region in αPAK: Inhibition of PAK Kinases Reveals Their Morphological Roles Downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1
- Zhou-shen Zhao, E. Manser, Xiang-qun Chen, Claire Chong, T. Leung, L. Lim
- BiologyMolecular and Cellular Biology
- 1 April 1998
These results, coupled with previous observations with constitutively active PAK, demonstrate that these kinases play an important role downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1 in cytoskeletal reorganization.
A non-receptor tyrosine kinase that inhibits the GTPase activity of p21cdc42
The findings indicate that there may be a regulatory mechanism that sustains the GTP-bound active form of Cdc42Hs and which is directly linked to a tyrosine phosphorylation pathway.
PAK and other Rho-associated kinases--effectors with surprisingly diverse mechanisms of regulation.
This work focuses on the current understanding of the way in which different Rho-associated serine/threonine kinases, denoted PAK (p21-activated kinase), MLK (mixed-lineage kinase) and ROK (Rho-kinase), interact with and are regulated by their partner GTPases.
PRL-3 down-regulates PTEN expression and signals through PI3K to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Targeting PRL-3 may be a useful strategy to impede cancer cell invasion and metastasis because it could play an initiating role to trigger the EMT switch during cancer metastasis.