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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of the murine brain response to light: temporal differentiation and negative functional MRI changes.
Using a 9.4 T MRI instrument, images of the mouse brain response to photic stimulation during a period between deep anesthesia and the early stages of arousal are obtained, suggesting that operations of the M visual system pathway are directly detected.
A Behavioral Homeostasis Theory of Habituation and Sensitization: II. Further Developments and Predictions
The 'behavioral homeostasis theory' of habituation and sensitization is based on the notion that organisms at a high level of 'alertness' prior to experiencing a new iterative stimulus will show a large initial response followed by a decrement (habituation) if the stimulus is of little significance.
Quantitative analysis of ciliary and contractile responses during habituation training in Spirostomum ambiguum.
These behavioral modifications were found to be independent of the animal's location in the stimulation chamber, attitude, body shape, and swimming activity at the time of stimulus delivery, and were not changed by repetitive stimulation.
A comparative approach to the behavior called `learned helplessness'
Because of increasing governmental regulations in both Europe and the US on mammalian studies involving shock and distress, such as that associated with 'learned helplessness', it may be prudent to consider other systems that may offer insight into its underlying mechanisms.
The effects of dieldrin and chlordimeform on learning and memory in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana: a study in behavioral toxicology.
It is indicated that dieldrin induces behavioral alterations in a low acute dose and that detrimental effects are more likely with more complex behavior, and behavioral disruption is more likely the closer exposure is to the initial learning of a task.
The evolutionary significance of habituation and sensitization across phylogeny: A behavioral homeostasis model
The phenomenon of habituation may be interpreted as a process that has evolved for filtering out iterative stimuli of little present relevance. That habituation is seen in aneural as well as neural
Habituation and sensitization in an aneural cell: Some comparative and theoretical considerations
Cellular studies of these behaviors in Protozoa, where a single cell is also a whole organism, may be useful in investigating the evolution of mechanisms underlying these plastic behavioral changes.
Learning in an isolated prothoracic insect ganglion
The results showed that long-term generalized excitability changes could occur from the effects of the shock on the peripheral neuromuscular apparatus itself and showed none of the complexity seen in those with an intact isolated prothoracic ganglion.
Learning and Memory in Isolated Insect Ganglia
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses and restates a formulation of learning and reviews a variety of behavioral, physiological, histological, and chemical studies on insect systems, which bear