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A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing
This paper presents a spreading-acti vation theory of human semantic processing, which can be applied to a wide range of recent experimental results. Expand
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Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory.
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Learning & memory
  • 1 July 2005
The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, asExpand
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The reality of repressed memories.
  • E. Loftus
  • Medicine
  • The American psychologist
  • 1993
Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge intoExpand
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Leading questions and the eyewitness report
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • 1 October 1975
A total of 490 subjects, in four experiments, saw films of complex, fast-moving events, such as automobile accidents or classroom disruptions. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate howExpand
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Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.
A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate howExpand
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Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory
Two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobiled accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. The question, “About how fast were the cars goingExpand
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Some facts about “weapon focus”
Abstract“Weapon focus” refers to the concentration of acrime witness's attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. We examined thisExpand
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Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred
Counterfactual imaginings are known to have far-reaching implications. In the present experiment, we ask if imagining events from one’s past can affect memory for childhood events. We draw on theExpand
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The Formation of False Memories
For most of this century, experimental psychologists have been interested in how and why memory fails. As Greene2 has aptly noted, memories do not exist in a vacuum. Rather, they continually disruptExpand
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The malleability of human memory.
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • American scientist
  • 1 May 1979
Considerable research has been done which indicates that new information about an experienced event may supplement and even alter the recollection of that event (e.g. subjects would be shown someExpand
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