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DNA from Bacteria, but Not from Vertebrates, Induces Interferons, Activates Natural Killer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth
TLDR
The nucleic acid fraction from cells of 6 species of bacterium and 2 kinds of vertebrate, calf and salmon, was extracted and purified and it was shown that the factor to activate macrophages was interferon (IFN)‐gamma and that to inhibit viral growth was IFN‐alpha/beta.
Synthetic Oligonucleotides with Particular Base Sequences from the cDNA Encoding Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Induce Interferons and Activate Natural Killer Cells
TLDR
It is suggested that certain palindrome sequences, like GACGTC, GGCGCC and TGCGCA, are essential for 30‐mer oligonucleotides, like BCG‐A4a, to induce IFNs.
Unique palindromic sequences in synthetic oligonucleotides are required to induce IFN [correction of INF] and augment IFN-mediated [correction of INF] natural killer activity.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the presence of the unique palindromic sequences, such as GACGTC, AGCGCT, and AACGTT, but not ACCGGT, is essential for the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides.
In vitro Augmentation of Natural Killer Cell Activity and Production of Interferon‐α/β and ‐γ with Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG
A nucleic acid‐rich fraction extracted and purified from BCG (MY‐1) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity of mouse spleen cells in vitro, and produced factor(s) which showed anti‐viral activity
Binding of oligoguanylate to scavenger receptors is required for oligonucleotides to augment NK cell activity and induce IFN.
TLDR
It is suggested that the binding of an extrapalindromic sequence to the scavenger receptor is required for the immunostimulatory activity of oligo-1, a 30mer single-stranded oligonucleotide with oligoG sequences next to the active palindromo-G sequences.
Antitumor activity of the DNA fraction from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. II. Effects on various syngeneic mouse tumors.
TLDR
MY-1 was equally effective in mice with or without presensitization with BCG, whereas BCG was much more effective in BCG-sensitized mice, suggesting that a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction elicited by BCG protein is not required for the antitumor activity of MY-1.
Oligonucleotide Sequences Required for Natural Killer Cell Activation
TLDR
The results indicated that the activity depended critically on the presence of particular palindromic sequences including the 5 ‐CG‐3 motif(s), and the size and the number of Palindromes showed the strongest activity among the oligonucleotides tested.
Hexamer palindromic oligonucleotides with 5'-CG-3' motif(s) induce production of interferon.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the minimal essential structure required for IFN induction is the hexamer palindromic sequence with CG motif(s), and that oligonucleotides with NACGTN and NTCGAN sequences exhibited the strongest activity.
Discovery of immunostimulatory CpG-DNA and its application to tuberculosis vaccine development.
TLDR
Bacterial DNA with unmethylated CpG-DNA stimulates vertebrate immature immune cells to induce maturation and to produce TNF-alpha as well as Th1-type cytokines, IL-12 and IFN-gamma, which functions as an adjuvant for regulating the initiation of Th1 differentiation.
Antitumor Activity of Synthetic Oligonucleotides with Sequences from cDNA Encoding Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG
TLDR
Results suggested that palindromic structure is essential for the antitumor activity of the synthetic oligonucleotides.
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