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The hypothesis that the regular multiannual population oscillations of boreal and arctic small rodents (voles and lemmings) are driven by predation is as old as the scientific study of rodent cyclesExpand
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The Puzzles of Population Cycles and Outbreaks of Small Mammals Solved?
Abstract Well-known examples of high-amplitude, large-scale fluctuations of small-mammal populations include vole cycles in the boreal zone of Eurasia, lemming cycles in the high-arctic tundra ofExpand
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Population oscillations of boreal rodents: regulation by mustelid predators leads to chaos
THE four-year cycle of microtine rodents in boreal and arctic regions was first described in 1924 (ref. 1). Competing hypotheses on the mechanisms underlying the small mammal cycle have beenExpand
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Numerical and Functional Responses of Kestrels, Short‐Eared Owls, and Long‐Eared Owls to Vole Densities
We studied numerical and functional responses of breeding European Kes- trels (EK) (Falco tinnunculus), Short-eared Owls (SO) (Asio flammeus), and Long-eared Owls (LO) (Asio otus) during 1977-1987 inExpand
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Inter-sexual differences in the immune response of Eurasian kestrel nestlings under food shortage
When resources are limited, parents should decide the optimal number, size, and sex of progeny, and offspring should decide the optimal allocation of resources to different costly functions, such asExpand
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The Boreal Owl: Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation of a Forest-Dwelling Predator
Widespread in North American forest regions including the Rocky Mountains, the Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus) was once the most numerous predatory bird in Eurasian boreal forests. Synthesising theExpand
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Alien predators are more dangerous than native predators to prey populations
Alien predators are widely considered to be more harmful to prey populations than native predators. To evaluate this expectation, we conducted a meta-analysis of the responses of vertebrate prey inExpand
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Specialist and generalist natural enemies as an explanation for geographical gradients in population cycles of northern herbivores
Within Fennoscandia, two well-studied groups of herbivores exhibit clear geographical gradients in their population dynamics. Populations of a forest lepidopteran (Epirrita autumnata, the autumnalExpand
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Are goose nesting success and lemming cycles linked? Interplay between nest density and predators
The suggested link between lemming cycles and reproductive success of arctic birds is caused by potential effects of varying predation pressure (the Alternative Prey Hypothesis, APH) and protectiveExpand
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Responses of stoats and least weasels to fluctuating food abundances: is the low phase of the vole cycle due to mustelid predation?
SummaryWe studied responses of stoats and least weasels to fluctuating vole abundances during seven winters in western Finland. Density indices of mustelids were derived from snow-tracking, dietExpand
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