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Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.
The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and… Expand
The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes
We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotic and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukARYotic genomes, which we named KOGs after euk aryotic o rthologous g roups. Expand
The COG database: a tool for genome-scale analysis of protein functions and evolution
The database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins is an attempt on a phylogenetic classification of the proteins encoded in 21 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Expand
A genomic perspective on protein families.
In order to extract the maximum amount of information from the rapidly accumulating genome sequences, all conserved genes need to be classified according to their homologous relationships. Comparison… Expand
Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System
The microbial adaptive immune system CRISPR mediates defense against foreign genetic elements through two classes of RNA-guided nuclease effectors. Class 1 effectors utilize multi-protein complexes,… Expand
Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis.
Analysis of the 1,042,519-base pair Chlamydia trachomatis genome revealed unexpected features related to the complex biology of chlamydiae. Although chlamydiae lack many biosynthetic capabilities,… Expand
Small CRISPR RNAs Guide Antiviral Defense in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes acquire virus resistance by integrating short fragments of viral nucleic acid into clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Here we show how virus-derived… Expand
Evolution and classification of the CRISPR–Cas systems
The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These… Expand
The COG database: new developments in phylogenetic classification of proteins from complete genomes
The database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), which represents an attempt on a phylogenetic classification of the proteins encoded in complete genomes, currently consists of 2791 COGs including 45 350 proteins from 30 genomes of bacteria, archaea and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expand
An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems
- K. Makarova, Y. Wolf, +18 authors E. Koonin
- Biology, Medicine
- Nature Reviews Microbiology
- 1 November 2015
The evolution of CRISPR–cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal… Expand